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All India Seminar on How to Crack IBPS RRB 2017

Tuesday, 9 April 2013

CHEMISTRY:INVENTIONS & INVENTORS

1.     Atom: (nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.
2.     Atomic theory: (modern) John Dalton, England, 1808.
3.     Atomic structure:
·   Formulated nuclear model of atom, Rutherford model: Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911;
·   Proposed current concept of atomic structure, the Bohr model: Niels Bohr, Denmark, 1913.
4.     Aluminum manufacture: (by Electrolytic action) Charles M. Hall, U.S., 1866.
5.     Avogadro's law: Amedeo Avogadro, Italy, 1811.
6.     Boyle's law: Robert Boyle, Ireland, 1662.
7.     Portland Cement: Joseph Aspdin, England, 1824.
8.     Condensed milk: Gail Borden, U.S., 1853.
9.     Cosmetics: Egypt, c. 4000 B.C.
10.  Deuterium: (heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey, U.S., 1931.
11.  Dye: (aniline, start of synthetic dye industry) William H. Perkin, England, 1856.
12.  Electron: J. J. Thompson, 1897
13.  Kinetic theory of gases: (molecules of a gas are in a state of rapid motion) Daniel Bernoulli, Switzerland, 1738.
14.  Neutron: James Chadwick, England, 1932.
15.  Neutron-induced radiation: Enrico Fermi et al., Italy, 1934.
16.  Nitroglycerin: Ascanio Sobrero, Italy, 1846.
17.  Nuclear fission: Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, 1938.
18.  Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi, Italy, et al., 1942.
19.  Oxygen: (isolation of) Joseph Priestley, 1774; Carl Scheele, 1773.
20.  Ozone: Christian Schönbein, Germany, 1839.
21.  Positron: Carl D. Anderson, U.S., 1932.
22.  Pressure cooker: Denis Papin, France, 1679.
23.  Proton: Ernest Rutherford,1919.
24.  Radioactivity:-
·   Radioactivity of uranium: Henri Becquerel, France, 1896;
·   Radioactive elements radium and polonium in uranium ore: Marie Sklodowska-Curie, Pierre Curie, France, 1898;
·   Classification of alpha and beta particle radiation: Pierre Curie, France, 1900;
·   Gamma radiation: Paul-Ulrich Villard, France, 1900.
25.  Radiocarbon dating, carbon-14 method:-
·   Discovered by: Willard F. Libby, 1947, U.S.;
·   First demonstrated) U.S., 1950.
26.  Radio waves: Karl Jansky, U.S., 1932.
27.  Rubber: (vulcanization process) Charles Goodyear, U.S., 1839.
28.  Saccharin: Constantine Fuhlberg, Ira Remsen, U.S., 1879.
29.  Uncertainty principle: (i.e. position and velocity of an object cannot both be measured exactly, at the same time) Werner Heisenberg, Germany, 1927.
30.  Isotopes:-
·   Concept : Frederick Soddy, England, 1912;
·   Stable isotopes: J. J. Thompson, England, 1913;
·   Existence demonstrated by mass spectrography: Francis W. Ashton, 1919.
31.  Pen:-
·   Fountain: Lewis E. Waterman, U.S., 1884.
·   Ball-point: Laszlo Biro, Argentina, 1944.
32.  Periodic law: Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.
33.  Periodic table: Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.
34.  Plastics: Leo H. Baekeland, U.S., 1910
35. Printing: Johann Gutenberg, Germany, c.1450

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