Monday, 12 January 2015

Banking Awareness: The Indian Financial System

The term "finance" in our simple understanding it is perceived as equivalent to 'Money'.Finance exactly is not money, But it is the source of providing funds for a particular activity.The word "system", in the term "financial system", implies a set of complex and closely connected or interlined institutions, agents, practices, markets, transactions, claims, and liabilities in the economy.  The financial system is concerned about money, credit and finance-the three terms are intimately related yet are somewhat different from each other.

Components/ Constituents of Indian Financial system:


FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

Money Market Instruments

The money market can be defined as a market for short-term money and financial assets that are near substitutes for money.The term short-term means generally a period upto one year and near substitutes to money is used to denote any financial asset which can be quickly converted into money with minimum transaction cost.

Some of the important money market instruments are briefly discussed below:

1. Call /Notice-Money Market
Call/Notice money is the money borrowed or lent on demand for a very short period. When money is borrowed or lent for a day, it is known as Call (Overnight) Money. Intervening holidays and/or Sunday are excluded for this purpose. Thus money, borrowed on a day and repaid on the next working day, (irrespective of the number of intervening holidays) is "Call Money". When money
 is borrowed or lent for more than a day and up to 14 days, it is "Notice Money". No collateral security is required to cover these transactions.

2. Inter-Bank Term Money
Inter-bank market for deposits of maturity beyond 14 days is referred to as the term money market. The entry restrictions are the same as those for Call/Notice Money except that, as per existing regulations, the specified entities are not allowed to lend beyond 14 days.

3. Treasury Bills.
Treasury Bills are short term (up to one year) borrowing instruments of the union government. It is an IOU of the Government. It is a promise by the Government to pay a stated sum after expiry of the stated period from the date of issue(91/182/364 days i.e. less than one year). They are issued at a discount to the face value, and on maturity the face value is paid to the holder. The rate of discount and the corresponding issue price are determined at each auction.

4. Certificate of Deposits
Certificates of Deposit (CDs) is a negotiable money market instrument and issued in dematerialised form or as a Usance Promissory Note, for funds deposited at a bank or other eligible financial institution for a specified time period.

5. Commercial Paper
CP is a note in evidence of the debt obligation of the issuer. On issuing commercial paper the debt obligation is transformed into an instrument. CP is thus an unsecured promissory note privately placed with investors at a discount rate to face value determined by market forces.

Capital Market Instruments 
The capital market generally consists of the following long term period i.e., more than one year period, financial instruments; In the equity segment Equity shares, preference shares, convertible preference shares, non-convertible preference shares etc and in the debt segment debentures, zero coupon bonds, deep discount bonds etc.

Hybrid Instruments
Hybrid instruments have both the features of equity and debenture. This kind of instruments is called as hybrid instruments.Examples are convertible debentures, warrants etc.

FINANCIAL MARKETS 
Financial market is a market where financial instruments are exchanged or traded and helps in determining the prices of the assets that are traded in and is also called the price discovery process.

TYPES OF FINANCIAL MARKETS 

Forex Market - The Forex market deals with the multicurrency requirements, which are met by the exchange of currencies.  Depending on the exchange rate that is applicable, the transfer of funds takes place in this market.  This is one of the most developed and integrated market across the globe

MONEY MARKET:
The money market is a market for short-term funds, which deals in financial assets whose
period of maturity is upto one year. It should be noted that money market does not deal in
cash or money as such but simply provides a market for credit instruments such as bills of
exchange, promissory notes, commercial paper, treasury bills, etc.

CAPITAL MARKET
Capital Market may be defined as a market dealing in medium and long-term funds. It is an institutional arrangement for borrowing medium and long-term funds and which provides facilities for marketing and trading of securities. So it constitutes all long-term borrowings from banks and financial institutions, borrowings from foreign markets and raising of capital by issue various securities such as shares debentures, bonds, etc.The market where securities are traded known as Securities market. It consists of two different segments namely primary and secondary market The primary market deals with new or fresh issue of securities and is, therefore, also known as new issue market;whereas the secondary market provides a place for purchase and sale of existing securities and is often termed as stock market or stock exchange.

CREDIT MARKET
Credit market is a place where banks, FIs and NBFCs purvey short, medium and long-term loans to corporate and individuals.



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