Directions (Q.1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them.
Brexit, a seismic moment in Europe, came as a blessing in disguise for India as it came on the same day as the setback in Seoul. India’s miscalculation on the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership bid paled into insignificance compared to the British Prime Minister’s misadventure in holding a referendum on the U.K.’s membership of the European Union. Otherwise there would have been greater criticism of the foreign policy fiasco, which not only resulted in a rebuff to India but also gave a veto to China on India’s nuclear credentials and hyphenated India and Pakistan. Moreover, we have elevated NSG membership to such heights that it appears more important and urgent than other items on our wish list such as permanent membership of the UN Security Council, signing of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nuclear weapon state, and membership of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
The Seoul experience should be a lesson in multilateral diplomacy for India. First and foremost, credibility is the hallmark of success in the international community. Policy changes should appear slow, deliberate and logical. Sudden shifts and turns are viewed with suspicion. India had a fundamental position that our objective is disarmament and not merely non-proliferation. Not signing the NPT and Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty arose from the conviction that arms control is not a substitute to disarmament. Distancing ourselves from NPT-centred entities was also part of that philosophy. Rejection of discriminatory regimes and selective controls appeared logical and just. Even after declaring ourselves as a nuclear weapon state, our readiness for nuclear disarmament maintained our credibility.
Our sudden anxiety to join the NSG and other non-proliferation groupings is a departure from the traditional Indian position, particularly since we have not fully utilised the waiver given to us by the NSG. An invitation by the U.S. was not enough to justify our enthusiasm for membership, and canvassing at the highest level in selected countries made matters worse. Having applied for membership only in May this year, we did not allow ourselves time to explain the rationale of our policy change, not only to the NSG members but also the other adherents to the NPT. This explains the hesitation of many friendly countries to support us. Any indication of change in the non-proliferation architecture makes them nervous.
The fact that many Indian initiatives have been successful in the multilateral arena should not lead us into assuming automatic support for our suggestions and requests. Many of our initiatives in the UN in the initial years, such as decolonisation, disarmament, development, human rights and apartheid, were more for the common good rather than for our own sake. Problems arise when we seek advantages and concessions to ourselves, like in the case of Jammu and Kashmir, non-proliferation and Bangladesh or when our positions are perceived as siding with another major power, as in Afghanistan and Cambodia.
Our positions on self-determination and terrorism are not fully appreciated in the international community as yet. It was with patience, persistence and extraordinary diplomatic skills that India had managed to steer clear of embarrassment or rebuff. Approaching multilateralism with an illusion of grandeur or presumption of justice, fair play and reasonableness may be hazardous.
Q.1 What does the word ‘Brexit’ means in this passage?
It is group of Asian countries working together on the issue of climate change.
It means Britannica phenomenon
Brexit means exit from America
Brexit is an abbreviation of "British exit", which refers to the June 23, 2016 referendum by British voters to exit the European Union.
None of these
(Brexit is an abbreviation of "British exit" from European Union.)
Q.2 What does the term “NSG” means in this passage?
National Social Group
National Service Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Support Grievances
None of these
( In first paragraph , the full form of the NSG is mentioned- Nuclear Suppliers Group. )
Q.3 What are areas of focus for India other than NSG membership?
Keeping Britain out of the European Union
permanent membership of the UN Security Council, signing of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nuclear weapon state, and membership of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
Working on climate change Policy
fighting cross border intrusion and terrorism
None of these
(refer para-1 ,line 9)
Q.4 What is the hallmark of success in the international community, as mentioned in the paragraph?
(refer para-2 ,line 1)
Q.5 When did India apply for the membership for NSG?
None of these
(refer para-3 ,line 5)
Directions (Q.6-10): In these questions, out of the five alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the word given in bold
(referendum- a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.)
(fiasco- a complete failure, especially a ludicrous or humiliating one.)
(apartheid- (in South Africa) a policy or system of discrimination on grounds of race)
(disarmament- the reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons.)
(rebuff- an abrupt or ungracious rejection of an offer, request, or friendly gesture.)