Tuesday, 19 July 2016

ENglish - VinglisH!

Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the examination even if they know the rules. 

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the basic categorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Fourteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.


Today we will discuss about Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and continued until sometime in past. There is always a time reference, such as “since 1990, for two hours etc” from which the action had started.

Identification:

1. If duration of a past is mentioned.
Ex -
He was my badminton partner. We had been playing together for eight years.
It is midnight and you have been watching television for four hours.

2. If some action with it's cause is shown.
Ex -
Sandy was very confident because she had been rehearsing hard for the play.
The road was wet because it had been raining.

3. An action to be taken if and only if some condition is satisfied.
Ex -
If it hadn't been so humid, we would have gone to the park.
If you had been working hard, you would have qualified the exam.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

अगर वाक्य में कार्य एक नियत समय से लगातार जारी था और वाक्य के अंत में 'रहा था', 'रही थी', 'रहे थे' हो, तो वह पास्ट पर्फेक्ट कंटिन्युअस टेन्स है । अगर लगातार समय नही दिया हुआ है और वाक्य के अंत में 'रहा था', 'रही थी', 'रहे थे' हो, तो वह पास्ट कंटिन्युअस टेन्स है । 

इन वाक्यों के अंत में रहा था /रही थी /रहे थे (इतने समय से) आता है।

Ex-
राम 2 घंटे से खेल रहा था।
वे सुबह से खेल रहे थे।
सीता कल से पढ़ रही थी।

Difference From Past Continuous Tense:

If no time reference or sense of time reference, or time of action i.e. when did the event started in past and till when was that continued is given, then it is not Past Perfect Continuous Tense . If it seems just an ongoing action in past then it resembles “past Continuous tense”. So the reference of time differentiates between Past perfect continuous tense and past continuous tense.

Use of Verb
Auxiliary verb “had been” is used in sentence. 1st form of verb (base verb) +ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence. “Since” or “for” is used before the “time reference” in sentence. If the time reference is exactly known such as 2004, 12 O’clock then “since” is used before the time in sentence. If the time reference is not exactly known such as three hours, six years, four days, then “for” is used before the time in sentence.

In every form of Tense, there are four types of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)
2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)
3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)
4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)



Interrogative Sentences

{Had+Sub+ been + Verb(1st form + ing) + Object + time reference }
Negative Interrogative Sentences

{Had not + Sub +  been + verb(1st form + ing)  + Object + time reference}
Had I been studying newspaper since morning?
Had not I been studying newspaper since morning?
Had we been studying since morning?
Had not we been studying since morning?
Had you been studying since morning?
Had not you been studying since morning?
Had he been studying newspaper since morning?
Had not he been studying newspaper since morning?
Had they been studying since morning?
Had not they been studying since morning?
Had Raman been studying newspaper for two hours?
Had not Raman been studying newspaper for two hours?
Had the boys been studying since morning?
Had not the boys been studying since morning?

Tomorrow we will discuss "Simple Present Tense" in Detail.




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