Sunday, 24 July 2016

ENglish - VinglisH!

Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the examination even if they know the rules. 

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the basic categorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Eighteenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.
Today we will discuss about Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense - Most Important Tense To Learn!
This tense is also known as Present Perfect Progressive Tense. It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now. 


This tense will surely have some time reference. Whenever you see 'since' or 'for' the sentence there is possibility that the sentence is in Present Perfect Continuous.

This tense is basically used for two purposes:

1. To say how long for unfinished actions which started in the past and continue to the present. We often use this with for and since.

Ex - 
I've been living in Delhi for two years.
She's been working here since 1986.

2. Actions which have just stopped (though the whole action can be unfinished) and have a result, which we can often see, hear, or feel, in the present.

Ex - 
I'm so tired, I've been working.
It's been raining, the pavement is wet.
I have been reading this book, it is very interesting.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

ऐसे कार्य या एक्शन जो भूतकाल में शुरु हो, लगातार जारी है और अभी तक पूर्ण नही हुए हैं, प्रेज़न्ट पर्फेक्ट कन्टीन्युअस टेन्स के अंतर्गत आते हैं । हिन्दी में इसकी पहचान है - वाक्य के अंत में 'रहा है', 'रही है', 'रहे हैं' का प्रयोग होता है । परंतु ऐसे वाक्यों में कार्य शुरु होन के समय का प्रयोग जरुरी है

Ex - 

मैं सुबह तीन बजे से किताब पढ़ रहा हूँ । -  I have been studying the book since 3 O'Clock in the morning.
राम 2 घंटे से खेल रहा है। -  Ram is playing for 2 hours.

Use of Verb: {has/have + been + Verb (1st form + ing) + since or for}

The present perfect continuous is made up of two elements:
(i) the present perfect of the verb 'to be' (have/has been)
(ii) the present participle of the main verb (base+ing)

Difference between Present Perfect Continuous Tense and Present Continuous Tense

If there is no time reference or sense of time reference in the sentence then it is not Present perfect continuous tense because there is no hint about the time of action when it started in past and it seems just an ongoing action at present time which resembles “present Continuous tense. So the reference of time differentiates between Present perfect continuous tense and Present continuous tense.

Use of 'For' and 'Since'

1. For: "For" is used before uncertain time e.g. two hours, an hour, few days, five days, seven days, two months, ten months, One year, ten years, for a long time.

2. Since: "Since" is used before certain time e.g. 2 O'clock, 11 O'clock, 6 PM, 2 AM, Monday, Saturday, Sunday, April, June, October, 1986, 2011, 2002, Since long., Yesterday, tomorrow, day after tomorrow, Morning, Evening, Night, Noon, Afternoon, Birth, beginning, then, when.

In every form of Tense, there are four types of sentences:

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)
2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)
3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)
4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)

Tomorrow we will discuss "Future Indefinite Tense" in Detail.

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