Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of entrusted funds and power for personal gain i.e. Theft, fraud, nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not necessarily - illegal. In handling corruption, you will often face a Gray zones and dilemmas. In many countries, corruption is everywhere and daily life is riddled with situations in the Gray zone between legal and illegal. Many people accept petty corruption as a fact of life. But the causes might differ, however, whether corruption results from a need, a culture or simply from an opportunity too tempting not to exploit, it influences the way we deal with it - or don’t deal with it. Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty corruption), corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption).
The main reason for the spread of corruption is that the people in the highest seat of power are corrupt unless the people at the top rung of power are honest and free from corruption; there is absolutely no possibility of eradicating corruption. If there is widespread corruption in India , it is because the people at the top are really corrupt .No subordinate will have to guts to be corrupt if the people at the top of the administration are honest and take stern action against the corrupt people .They cannot be harsh to the corrupt people , since it is through the corrupt subordinates that the people at the top get their share of the bribes .If one can make a discrete enquiry with the pavement traders, he can find out how much the police and the corporation councilors collect from the pavement traders .They say that the money so collected is shared by people from the top to the bottom. If the head is corrupt, what will the limbs do? The causes of corruption in India also include excessive regulations, complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government departments each with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in level of corruption as well as in state government efforts to reduce corruption across India.
A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that more than 62% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and bribes are common between state borders; Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) in bribes. Government regulators and police share in bribe money, each to the tune of 43% and 45% respectively. The en route stoppages including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to 11 hours in a day. About 60% of these (forced) stoppages on road by concerned authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise, octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting money. The loss in productivity due to these stoppages is an important national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by 40%, if forced delays are avoided. According to a 2007 World Bank published report, the travel time for a Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated regulatory stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated.
1. How many rupees are paid by truckers annually as per the study of transparency international?
(a) US $ 5.5 billion
(b) Rs. 22, 000 crore
(c) Rs. 22, 200 crore
(d) US $ 4 billion
(e) None of these
2. What is the main objective of writer behind writing the passage?
(a) It gives an idea of right and wrong judgement.
(b) To remove the corruption from top to bottom.
(c) To throw light on corruption.
(d) Both 1 and 2
(e) None of these
3. What is petty corruption?
(a) When corruption doesn't occur in many people.
(b)Corruption found from top to bottom in every department.
(c) When people of a particular department is corrupt.
(d) Where head of the departments are corrupt.
(e) None of these
4. Why the corruption is increasing so rapidly?
(a) Because all the employees are interested in it.
(b) The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.
(c) Government is unable to control over the corruption.
(d) There is a lack of strict laws against it.
(e) None of these
5. What do you understand by Gray zones as used in the passage?
(a) Double meaning.
(b) A puzzled situation but can be solved.
(c) Lack of knowledge.
(d) A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
(e) None of these
Direction (6-8): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
(e) Cross bar
Direction (9-10): Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (11-15): Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Find out which option can be used to fill up the blank in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
11. A boy died from_______he received after being _________beaten up by his teacher.
(a) abrasion, formally
(b) injuries, allegedly
(c) infliction, hardly
(d) casualty, purportedly
(e) agony, severely
12. Agricultural scientists told them that the___________was mainly due to _________soil health and that they needed to follow zero-till farming method.
(a) crisis, deteriorating
(b) catastrophe, adulterated
(c) change, non-productive
(d) trouble, terrible
(e) problem, weak
13. It is __________how this colour has________the feminine space in India.
(a) bewildering, effected
(b) astonishing, busted
(c) prodigious, apprehended
(d) amazing, captured
(e) remarkable, arrested
14. The make-up of the syllabus________students to have a wide ________of knowledge.
(a) seeks, variation
(b) desires, type
(c) expects, variety
(d) wants, scope
(e) helps, sort
15. ________a coaching center is a vital_______in the total game plan.
(a) Choosing, course
(b) Referring, angle
(c) Consulting, way
(d) Considering, thing
(e) Selecting, aspect
Sol. Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually 22,200 crores (US$ 4.5 billion) in bribes.
Sol. ‘To throw light on corruption’ is the main purpose of the writer.
Sol. petty corruption -When corruption doesn't occur in many people.
Sol. The people in the highest seat of power our involved in the corruption.
Sol. A topic that is not clear or full of ambiguity.
Sol. RUNG- a position or level within a group, organization, etc., that is higher or lower than others
Sol. ERADICATE-destroy completely; put an end to.
Sol. GUTS means courage.
Sol. PREVALENT-widespread in a particular area or at a particular time.
Sol. STERN-(of a person or their manner) serious and unrelenting, especially in the assertion of authority and exercise of discipline.
Sol. injuries, allegedly fit in the context correctly.
Sol. crisis, deteriorating fit in the context correctly.
Sol. amazing, captured fit in the context correctly.
Sol. expects, variety fit in the context correctly.
Sol. Selecting, aspect fit in the context correctly.