Directions (1-6): Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the five given alternatives.
In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist, multinational comparison of women’s electoral participation ever to use election data and survey data together. His study analyzed women’s patterns of voting, political candidacy, and political activism in four European countries during the first half of the twentieth century. Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote) and were slightly more conservative.
Duverger’s work set an early standard for the sensitive analysis of women’s electoral activities. Moreover, to Duverger’s credit, he placed his findings in the context of many of the historical processes that had shaped these activities. However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings. In addition, Duverger’s discussion of his findings was hampered by his failure to consider certain specific factors important to women’s electoral participation at the time he collected his data: the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men. Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
Q1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(a) evaluate a research study
(b) summarize the history of a research area
(c) report new research findings
(d) reinterpret old research findings
(e) reconcile conflicting research findings
Q2. According to the passage, Duverger’s study was unique in 1955 in that it
(a) included both election data and survey data
(b) gathered data from sources never before used in political studies
(c) included an analysis of historical processes
(d) examined the influence on the voting behavior of the relationships between women and men
(e) analyzed not only voting and political candidacy but also other political activities
Q3. Which of the following characteristics of a country is most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?
(a) A large population
(b) A predominantly Protestant population
(c) A predominantly urban population
(d) A one-party government
(e) Location in the heart of Europe
Q4. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are
(a) limited because they focus on only four countries
(b) inaccurate in their description of the four countries in the early 1950s
(c) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today
(d) flawed because they are based on unsound data
(e) biased by Duverger’s political beliefs
Q5. The passage implies that, in comparing four European countries, Duverger found that the voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women
(a) were most politically active
(b) ran for office most often
(c) held the most conservative political views
(d) had the most egalitarian relations with men
(e) had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time
Q6. The author implies that some behavioralist research involving the multinational study of women’s political participation that followed Duverger’s study did which of the following?
(a) Ignored Duverger’s approach
(b) Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger’s study
(c) Focused on political activism
(d) Focused on the influences of political regimes
(e) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men
Directions (7-13): Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the five given alternatives.
According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems were formed more than two billion years ago from magmatic fluids that originated from molten granite-like bodies deep beneath the surface of the Earth. This theory is contrary to the widely held view that the systems were deposited from metamorphic fluids, that is, from fluids that formed during the dehydration of wet sedimentary rocks.
The recently developed theory has considerable practical importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth’s surface and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods. Although these same methods still lead to an occasional discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone undetected because they are buried and have no surface expression.
The challenge in exploration is therefore to unravel the subsurface geology of an area and pinpoint the position of buried minerals. Methods widely used today include analysis of aerial images that yield a broad geological overview; geophysical techniques that provide data on the magnetic, electrical, and mineralogical properties of the rocks being investigated; and sensitive chemical tests that are able to detect the subtle chemical halos that often envelop mineralization. However, none of these high-technology methods are of any value if the sites to which they are applied have never mineralized, and to maximize the chances of discovery the explorer must, therefore, pay particular attention to selecting the ground formations most likely to be mineralized. Such ground selection relies to varying degrees on conceptual models, which take into account theoretical studies of relevant factors.
These models are constructed primarily from empirical observations of known mineral deposits and from theories of ore-forming processes.
The explorer uses the models to identify those geological features that are critical to the formation of the mineralization being modeled and then tries to select areas for exploration that exhibit as many of the critical features as possible.
Q7. The author is primarily concerned with
(a) advocating a return to an older methodology
(b) explaining the importance of a recent theory
(c) enumerating differences between two widely used methods
(d) describing events leading to a discovery
(e) challenging the assumptions on which a theory is based
Q8. According to the passage, the widely held view of Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems is that such systems
(a) were formed from metamorphic fluids
(b) originated in molten granite-like bodies
(c) were formed from alluvial deposits
(d) generally, have surface expression
(e) are not discoverable through chemical tests
Q9. The passage implies that which of the following steps would be the first performed by explorers who wish to maximize their chances of discovering gold?
(a) Surveying several sites are known to have been formed more than two billion years ago
(b) Limiting exploration to sites known to have been formed from metamorphic fluid
(c) Using an appropriate conceptual model to select a site for further exploration
(d) Using geophysical methods to analyze rocks over a broad area
(e) Limiting exploration to sites where alluvial gold has previously been found
Q10. Which of the following statements about discoveries of gold deposits is supported by information in the passage?
(a) The number of gold discoveries made annually has increased between the time of the original gold rushes and the present.
(b) New discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be the result of exploration techniques designed to locate buried mineralization.
(c) It is unlikely that newly discovered gold deposits will ever yield as much as did those deposits discovered during the original gold rushes.
(d) Modern explorers are divided on the question of the utility of simple prospecting methods as a source of new discoveries of gold deposits.
(e) Models based on the theory that gold originated from magmatic fluids have already led to new discoveries of gold deposits.
Q11. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is easiest to detect?
(a) gold-quartz vein system originating in magmatic fluids
(b) A gold-quartz vein system originating in metamorphic fluids
(c) A gold deposit that is mixed with granite
(d) A gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold
(e) A gold deposit that exhibits chemical halos
Q12. The theory mentioned in lines 1-3 relates to the conceptual models discussed in the passage in which of the following ways?
(a) It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming processes, and, hence, can support conceptual models that have great practical significance.
(b) It suggests that certain geological formations, long believed to be mineralized, are in fact mineralized, thus confirming current conceptual models.
(c) It suggests that there may not be enough similarity across Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems to warrant the formulation of conceptual models.
(d) It corrects existing theories about the chemical halos of gold deposits and thus provides a basis for correcting current conceptual models.
(e) It suggests that simple prospecting methods still have a higher success rate in the discovery of gold deposits than do more modern methods.
Q13. According to the passage, methods of exploring for gold that is widely used today are based on which of the following facts?
(a) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are still molten.
(b) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are exposed at the surface.
(c) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.
(d) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration since the other types of gold deposits are found in regions difficult to reach.
(e) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration, since the other types of gold deposits, are unlikely to yield concentrated quantities of gold.
Directions (14-15): Choose the option which is the antonym of the word mentioned in the question.
Sol. evaluate a research study
Sol. included both election data and survey data
Sol. A one-party government
Sol. out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today
Sol. had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time
Sol. Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger’s study
Sol. explaining the importance of a recent theory
Sol. were formed from metamorphic fluids
Sol. Using an appropriate conceptual model to select a site for further exploration
Sol. New discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be the result of exploration techniques designed to locate buried mineralization.
Sol. A gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold
Sol. It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming processes, and, hence, can support conceptual models that have great practical significance.
Sol. Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are buried and have no surface expression.
Sol. Furtive -attempting to avoid notice or attention, typically because of guilt or a belief that discovery would lead to trouble; secretive.
Sol. Fleeting -lasting for a very short time.