In IBPS and Other bank exams, English Section plays an extremely important role in your Success . And more than 50% questions are based on grammar directly or its applications.
We've decided to help you with Grammar. We'll cover all the important Grammar rules and tricky scenarios in the form of "STUDY NOTES on GRAMMAR". Today in this post we'll introduce PRONOUN: Introduction, Types, and Rules.
☞1. Since a personal pronoun works in place of a noun, the number, gender and person of the pronoun must be according to the noun only.
Ex.- Ram has lost his books. (Not their)
She loves his husband. (Incorrect)
She loves her husband. (Correct)
☞2. When two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘AND’ the Pronoun for them always in the plural number.
Ex.- Mohan and Sohan have lost his books. (Incorrect)
Mohan and Sohan have lost their books. (Correct)
☞3. When two or more singular nouns joined by ‘AND’ are preceded by ‘EACH’ and ‘EVERY’ the pronoun must be singular.
Ex.- Every student and every teacher took his or her seat.
Each of Ram and Shyam has done his work.
Each man and each boy in the party has got his share.
☞4. When a singular nouns and a plural noun are combined by ‘OR’, ‘EITHER’ OR ‘NEITHER’ NOR the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence and the pronoun must be in the plural number.
Ex.- Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message.
☞5. When two or more singular nouns are joined by Either OR, neither nor the pronouns is always in the singular
Ex.- Ram or Mohan should invest his money in some business.
Neither Ram nor Shyam confessed his guilt
Either Sita or Kamla forgot to take her prize.
Either Sita or Kamla forgot to take her prize.
☞6. Either or neither are always used in relation to two things or two persons for more than two ‘ANY’, or ‘NONE’ must be used.
Ex.- Either of the two girls can pay for it.
Neither of the two brothers has been selected.
Any one of the employees can claim it.
None of the students of this class has passed.
☞7. When in a sentence ‘one’ is used as the subject all the pronouns in the sentence must be changed into ‘one’ or one’s and not his, her or him.
Ex.-One should keep one’s promise.
One should do one’s duty.
One must finish one’s task in time.
☞8. When any pronoun functions as the complement of the verb ‘To be’, it is always in the nominative case.
Ex.- It is me who have to go. (Incorrect)
It is I who have to go. (Correct)
It is him who is to blame. (Incorrect)
It is he who is to blame. (Correct)
It was he who could solve the problem Easily.
☞9. Whenever any pronoun functions as an object to a verb or a preposition, it is in the objective case.
Ex.- It is for he to consider. (Incorrect)
It is for him to consider. (Correct)
Ask he to go. (Incorrect)
Ask him to go. (Correct)
☞10. When two singular nouns joined by AND denote the same person or thing the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. The article ‘THE’ is placed before the first Noun.
Ex.- The accounts officer and treasures should be careful in his work of keeping accounts.
☞11. When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective case, it must be in the objective or accusative case.
Ex.- These clothes are for you and me. (not I)
☞12. A pronoun should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with Let.
Ex.- Let him go to his office
Let her submit the records in time.
☞13. While confessing a fault (or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
I, you and he are in the wrong and will be punished.
[First person first, second person next and third person last]
☞14. While expressing a positive idea or praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
You, He and I will get an award for the good work we have done.
[Second person (2), third person (3), and first person (1)]
You, he and I have finished the work.
Ram, I and you have finished our studies. (Incorrect)
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. (Correct)
☞15. After ‘BUT’, ‘EXCEPT’, ‘BETWEEN’ and ‘LET’ the pronoun is used in objective case where as after such as in’ the subjective case
Ex.- Everyone laughed but I. (Incorrect)
Everyone laughed but me. (Correct)
Now attended the meeting except he. (Incorrect)
Now attended the meeting except him. (Correct)
Let we laugh away our sorrows. (Incorrect)
Let us laugh away our sorrows. (Correct)
This is between you and I. (Incorrect)
This is between you and me. (Correct)
They do not have a lining far such a person as me. (Incorrect)
They do not have a liking for such a person as I. (Correct)
☞16. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree.
‘Any’ is used in Negative or interrogative sentences.
Ex.- I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
I shall read any book. (Incorrect)
I shall read some book. (Correct)
☞17. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, drink, oversleep, overreach, Revenge, present etc. when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them.
Ex.- He absented from the class. (Incorrect)
He absented himself from the class. (Corrected)
He presented himself before the manager.
He absented himself from the office today.
☞18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole-
Ex.- The Jury gave its verdict.
The Jury were divided in their opinions.
☞19. (a) Each other is used about two persons.
Ex.- The two brothers disliked each other.
Romeo and Juliet loved each other.
The two children quarreled with each other.
(b) One another is used about more than two-
Ex.- Good boys do not quarrel with one another.
All the students of the class are friendly, they like one another.
☞20. The pronouns who, whom, whose are generally used for persons
Who - Nominative case
Whom - Objective case
Whose - Possessive case
Ex.- Shikha is the student who got an award.
They are the thieves whom the police caught.
This is the student whose certificates are lost.
☞21. Use of ‘WHICH’
(a) For infants, small animals and objects.
Ex.- This is the baby which was lost in the theatre.
This is the dog which my friend bought from the U.S.
(b) When selection is expressed.
Ex.- Which of these television sets do you want to purchase?
(c) To refer to a sentence
Ex.- He was said to be drunk, which was not true.
☞22. Uses of ‘THAT’
(a) For persons, lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number.
Ex.- This is the girl that failed in the exam.
This is the Radio that I bought Yesterday.
(b) As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned.
Ex.- The weather of Hyderabad is for better than Chennai. (Wrong)
The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of Chennai. (Right)