Directions (1-4): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After reading passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.
A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that is unique to the capitalist system – that racial prejudice is generated by capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as “radically-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition,” can be interpreted as also including hostility towards such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. However, since prejudice against these latter peoples was not inspired by capitalists, he has no reason that such antagonisms were not really based on race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early twentieth-century discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently, was instigated by workers.
Q1. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(a) What accounts for the prejudice against the Jews in medieval Europe?
(b) What conditions caused in discrimination against Oriental people in California in the early twentieth-century?
(c) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
(d) What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial prejudice?
(e) who could have supplied the information.
Q2. The author considers the Marxist sociologist’s thesis about the origins of racial prejudice to be:
Q3. In can be inferred from the passage that the Marxist sociologist would argue that in a noncapitalist society racial prejudice would be:
Q4. According to the passage, the Marxist sociologist’s chain of reasoning him to assert that prejudice toward Oriental people in California was
(a) non-racial in character.
(b) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.
(c) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.
(d) provoked by workers.
(e) estimated by workers
Directions (5-10): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After reading passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.
By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.
Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.
However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses.
Q5. The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with:
Q6. The author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the
(a) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.
(b) similarities of the sensations that all human beings experience.
(c) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system.
(d) continuous passage of nerve impulses through nervous system.
(e) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
Q7. The description of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to different sensory field of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that
(a) the stimuli presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience.
(b) variation in spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience.
(c) nerve impulse are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system.
(d) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.
(e) manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.
Q8. According to the passage, some evidences exist that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?
I. The nature of the nerve impulse.
II. The modality of the sensory experience.
III. Qualitative differences within a modality.
(a) II only
(b) III only
(c) I and II only
(d) II and III only
(e) none of these.
Q9. The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the
(a) anatomy of the brain.
(b) physiological correlates of mental experience.
(c) manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.
(d) mechanics of sense perception.
(e) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.
Q10. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?
(a) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
(b) It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
(c) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are psychologically very similar.
(d) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
(e) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.
Directions (11-15): Improve the bold part in each of the following sentences, if needed.
Q11. We have abundant natural resources and all the manpower we need.
(a) those we need
(b) that needs
(c) we needed
(d) which is in our need
(e) No correction required
Q12. India is so poor that it can’t afford lose Mondays on account of strikes.
(a) can’t be affording lose
(b) could not afford for lose
(c) can’t afford to lose
(d) could afford to lost
(e) No correction required
Q13. The leader repeatedly mentioned that his mission was not by merely to achieve freedom.
(a) to more achieving
(b) merely to achieve
(c) for merely to achieve
(d) in order for achieving
(e) No correction required
Q14. The advocate declared in the court that his client has prepared to surrender.
(a) was prepared to
(b) has been preparing to
(c) was prepared at
(d) has prepared for
(e) No corrections required
Q15. The purchase made by him brought with him a number of prizes.
(a) brings towards him
(b) brought him
(c) brought up to him
(d) brought with himself
(e) No correction required
Sol. What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial prejudice?
Sol. Unpersuasive- is correct word.
Sol. Nonexistent- is correct word.
Sol. provoked by workers.
Sol. Pessimism- is correct word.
Sol. lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.
Sol. the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.
Sol. The modality of the sensory experience.
Sol. physiological correlates of mental experience.
Sol. There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
Sol. No correction required. The given sentence is grammatically correct.
Sol. Write ‘afford to lose’.
Sol. Write ‘merely to achieve’.
Sol. Write ‘was prepared to’.
Sol. Write ‘brought him’