Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO Prelims Exam: 16th August 2018

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Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO Prelims Exam: 16th August 2018


Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO Pre Exam

IBPS PO Prelims is in its way and lot of aspirants are heading towards new hopes with this upcoming opportunity. Thus, English Language can be an impetus for their success by saving time and scoring well. So, instead of boiling the ocean, try building up a strong vocabulary, an effective knowledge of grammar, and efficient comprehension skills so as to be on the ball to face this particular section. Here is a quiz on English Language being provided by Adda247 to let you practice the best of latest pattern English Questions for upcoming IBPS PO exam.





Directions (1- 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

Are the latest employment estimates by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) factually correct? No. They are off the mark, and confined to the economy’s organised or formal sector, accounting at best for 15% of the workforce. Is there a paradox in high output growth rates and the marginal effect on employment? Probably not, if one acknowledges that GDP estimates (after the latest revision a few years ago) have apparently overstated domestic output growth on account of the infirmities in the methods applied and datasets used. Between September 2017 and April 2018, says a CSO media release last week titled “Payroll Reporting in India: An Employment Perspective – April 2018”, the economy added 4.1 million new jobs in the formal sector. Apparently, these estimates supplement the data on organised sector employment that are reported regularly in the Economic Survey since the early 1960s, compiled by the Directorate General of Employment, Ministry of Labour and Employment. The CSO release defines jobs as ones that provide at least one government financed (or mandated) social security benefit such as Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF), National Pension Scheme, or Employees’ State Insurance Scheme. NITI Aayog and official economists have also put out similar estimates since early this year, inviting widespread scepticism among knowledgeable people. As the formal sector accounts for just about 8-15% of India’s workforce (depending on the definitions used), the official estimates are completely silent about the majority of the workforce engaged in the informal sector. Ignoring the tiny size of the formal sector for the moment, how reliable or credible are the official estimates? Very little and for two reasons: the estimates are based on administrative records of implementing the social security schemes, whose completeness, consistency and accuracy are unknown; and since a formal (organised) sector worker, in principle, can legitimately access (or subscribe to) more than one social security scheme, double counting is a distinct possibility. The release does not explain how the problem is addressed in the database. Therefore, rightly, experts have demanded the release of the administrative data for independent verification. Moreover, the official data suffer from a conceptual problem. The social security databases, by design, are lists of workers enrolled in the schemes, as an entitlement or as voluntary subscribers — not employment registers. These schemes are applicable to establishments above a certain size (of employment), and to certain kinds of enterprises. For instance, in the factory sector, those employing 20 or more workers are mandated to provide EPF to all the workers (with a matching contribution by the employer). So, if in a factory, employment goes up from 19 to 20 workers, it comes under the purview of the EPF, to be provided to all the 20 workers. Thus, the EPF enrolment increases by 20 workers, but the additional job created is just for one worker. Herein lies the fault. Historically, evasion of EPF by employers is widespread, given poor enforcement of labour laws. The present government, in its efforts to formalise employment, has incentivised employers to enrol workers under EPF by offering to make employers’ contribution to the social security scheme for three years, thus boosting enrolment. Maharashtra, for instance, as an additional labour welfare measure, has widened the ambit of EPF to include all power-loom workers (irrespective of the size of the enterprise), boosting formal sector employment. Such measures, however temporary, may enlarge the formal sector size but cannot be counted as new jobs created. Hence, the official measure is flawed. 


Q1. Which of the following statements are incorrect in context with the passage? 

(I) The employment estimates are off the mark as they are confined to the formal sector. 
(II) The Indian economy was subjected to massive external forces of formalisation by the twin forces of demonetisation in FY-2017 and the GST in FY-2018. 
(III) It is well-known that when an employee loses her job or stops working, her membership from the EPFO database is not removed automatically.
Only (II)
Only (I)
Both (I) and (II)
Both (II) and (III)
Both (I) and (III)
Solution:
Only (I) is correct. Refer 1st three lines of the passage. Both (II) and (III) are incorrect.

Q2. Why are the official estimates considered less reliable as stated in the passage?
The estimates are based on administrative records of implementing the social security schemes, whose completeness, consistency and accuracy are unknown.
A formal sector worker can subscribe to more than one social security scheme and so there is a possibility of double counting.
It assumed that any 18- to 25-year-old registering with the EPFO are not legal subscribers of the schemes.
Both (a) and (b)
None of the Above
Solution:
Both (a) and (b) are the reasons. Refer the following lines “Ignoring the tiny size of the formal sector for the moment, how reliable or credible are the official estimates? Very little and for two reasons: the estimates are based on administrative records of implementing the social security schemes, whose completeness, consistency and accuracy are unknown; and since a formal (organised) sector worker, in principle, can legitimately access (or subscribe to) more than one social security scheme, double counting is a distinct possibility"

Q3. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the given passage? (I) If one had to truly separate out GST- and demonetization-induced formalization effects, then the study should have compared the EPFO numbers of FY-2016 and FY-2015. (II) The Prime Minister ignored the case for a better payroll system but pounced on the 55 lakh new jobs number, citing it to claim in an interview that his government is doing a splendid job in creating new jobs. (III) Poor enforcement of Labor Laws leads to widespread evasion of EPF by employers.
Only (I)
Only (II)
Both (I) and (II)
Only (III)
None of the Above
Solution:
Only (III) is correct. Refer lat para 1st line "Historically, evasion of EPF by employers is widespread, given poor enforcement of labour laws".

Q4. Which of the following can be the most appropriate title for the passage above?
Flaws in EPFO methodology
Payroll Reporting in India
Facts of the Central Statistics Office
The Paradox of Job Growth
None of the Above
Solution:
The most appropriate title for the passage above is "The Paradox of Job Growth".

Q5. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage. 
CONFINED
Inundated
Gaffer
Averaged
Cramped
Roomy
Solution:
Confined: (of a space) restricted in area or volume; cramped.
Cramped: uncomfortably small or restricted.
Inundated: overwhelm (someone) with things or people to be dealt with.
Gaffer: a person in charge of others; a boss.
Averaged: amount to or achieve as an average rate or amount over a period of time; mean.
Roomy: (especially of accommodation) having plenty of room; spacious.

Q6. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage. 
SCEPTICISM
Optimism
Buoyancy
Sanguineness
Diligence
Cynicism
Solution:
Scepticism: a sceptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something.
Cynicism: distrust, doubt
Optimism: hopefulness and confidence about the future or the success of something.
Buoyancy: a cheerful and optimistic attitude or disposition.
Sanguineness: marked by eager hopefulness ; confidently optimistic
Diligence: careful and persistent work or effort.

Q7. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage FLAWED
Erroneous
Unreliable
Imprecise
Appropriate
Specious
Solution:
Flawed: having or characterized by a fundamental weakness or imperfection.
Appropriate: suitable or proper in the circumstances.
Unreliable: not able to be relied upon.
Imprecise: lacking exactness and accuracy of expression or detail.
Specious: superficially plausible, but actually wrong.

Q8. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage OVERSTATED
Amplified
Brag
Contracted
Fabricate
Puffed
Solution:
Overstated: state too strongly; exaggerate.
Contracted: decrease in size, number, or range.
Amplified: increase the volume of (sound), especially using an amplifier.
Brag: say something in a boastful manner.
Fabricate: invent (something) in order to deceive. Puffed: out of breath.

Q9. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage. 
INFIRMITY
Fettle
Ailment
Robustness
Health
Wellness
Solution:
Infirmity: physical or mental weakness. 
Ailment: an illness, typically a minor one. 
Fettle: make or repair (something). 
Robustness: the quality or condition of being strong and in good condition.

Q10. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage ENLARGE
Surge
Inflate
Dwindle
Proliferate
 Burgeon
Solution:
Enlarge: make or become larger or more extensive. 
Surge: a sudden powerful forward or upward movement, especially by a crowd or by a natural force such as the tide. 
Inflate: increase (something) by a large or excessive amount. 
Dwindle: diminish gradually in size, amount, or strength. 
Proliferate: increase rapidly in number; multiply. 
Burgeon: begin to grow or increase rapidly; flourish.

Directions (11-15): In the passage given below there are blanks which are to be filled with the options given below. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering the meaning of the statement. 

The catastrophic impact of monsoon rainfall on several districts of Kerala has come as a grim reminder that the ___(11)___ against unpredictable natural disasters must never be relaxed. More than three dozen people have died and an estimated Rs.8,316 crore worth of economic assets have been lost in the seasonal rain, particularly over the past week. The gates of reservoirs in the Idukki system, a giant hydroelectric project, and several other dams have been opened, ___(12)___ riverside habitations downstream. At the peak of the havoc, about 60,000 people whose dwellings suffered damage were lodged in relief camps. In the northern districts, damage to houses, roads and other structures has occurred owing to landslips caused by ___(13)___ showers. There is genuine concern that a temporary respite in rainfall may be followed by another intense downpour from nascent weather systems; the India Meteorological Department has forecast rain until August 17. It is to Kerala’s credit that the deluge has led not to a partisan ___(14)___ game over planning, relief and rehabilitation, but an all-round effort to look ahead and plan for reconstruction. The Centre has done well to get a first-hand estimate of the havoc from Home Minister Rajnath Singh, although the initial announcement of Rs.100 crore towards relief is ___(15)___ with the scale of the damage. Crucial support has come from the armed forces as well to normalise the situation. 
Q11.
guide
watched
vigil
safety
censure
Solution:
'vigil' means to keep close watch. Here, the catastrophic impact of monsoon rainfall on several districts of Kerala has come as a grim reminder that vigil against the unpredictable natural disasters can never be relaxed.

Q12.
burying
swamped
overpowering
bombardier
inundating
Solution:
'inundating' means flooding(here). The context is about the flooding impacts on Kerala. To fight with this catastrophe, Idukki system, a giant hydroelectric project, and several other dams have been opened, inundating riverside habitations downstream.

Q13.
patchy
incessant
occasionally
sporadically
intermittent
Solution:
'incessant' means continuing without pause or interruption. Here, damage to houses, roads and other structures has occurred owing to landslips caused by incessant showers.

Q14.
blame
claim
ball
fair
no
Solution:
'blame game' is a phrase which means a situation in which people try to blame each other for something bad that has happened. Here, it is said in the context that to Kerala’s credit that the deluge has led not to a partisan blame game over planning, relief and rehabilitation, but an all-round effort to look ahead and plan for reconstruction.

Q15.
equality
similar
synchronized
asynchronous
incongruous
Solution:
'incongruous' means not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something. Here, the compensation received for the damage is incongruous with the scale of damage.

               


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