TOD ENGLISH 05.10.2018




Directions (1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the respective questions given below each of them. Certain words/phrases/sentences have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 
Human beings and nature have a very special relationship. Mother Nature has nurtured and nourished us. The first civilisations were established on the banks of rivers. Societies that live in harmony with nature flourish and prosper. Today, human society stands at an important crossroads. The path that we take hereon will not only determine our well-being but also that of the generations who will inhabit our planet after us. The imbalances between our greed and necessities have led to grave ecological imbalances. We can either accept this, go ahead with things as if it is business as usual, or we can take corrective actions. 

Three things will determine how we as a society can bring a positive change. The first is internal consciousness. For that, there is no better place to look than our glorious past. Respect for nature is at the core of India’s traditions. The Atharvaveda contains the Prithvi Sukta, which contains unparalleled knowledge about nature and the environment. It is beautifully written in Atharvaveda: Salutations to Mother Earth. In Her is woven together Ocean and River Waters; in Her is contained Food which She manifests when ploughed; In Her indeed is alive all Lives; May She bestow us with that Life. 

Mahatma Gandhi wrote extensively on the environment and even practised a lifestyle where compassion towards the environment was essential. He propounded the Doctrine of Trusteeship, which places the onus on us, the present generation, to ensure that our coming generations inherit a clean planet. He called for sustainable consumption so that the world does not face a resource crunch. 

The second aspect is public awareness. We need to talk, write, debate, discuss and deliberate as much as possible on questions relating to the environment. At the same time, it is vital to encourage research and innovation on subjects relating to the environment. This is when more people will know about the pressing challenges of our times and ways to mitigate them. When we as a society are aware of our strong links with environmental conservation and talk about it regularly, we will automatically be proactive in working towards a sustainable environment. That is why, I will put proactiveness as the third facet of bringing a positive change. In this context, I am delighted to state that the 130 crore people of India are proactive and at the forefront of working towards a cleaner and greener environment. 

We see this proactiveness in the Swachh Bharat Mission, which is directly linked to a sustainable future. With the blessings of the people of India, over 85 million households now have access to toilets for the first time. Over 400 million Indians no longer have to defecate in the open. Sanitation coverage is up from 39% to 95%. These are landmark efforts in the quest of reducing the strain on our natural surroundings. We see this proactiveness in the success of the Ujjwala Yojana, which has significantly reduced indoor air pollution due to unhealthy cooking practices that were causing respiratory diseases. Till date, over five crore Ujjwala connections have been distributed, thus ensuring a better and cleaner life for the women and their families. 

India is moving at a quick pace in cleaning its rivers. The Ganga, which is India’s lifeline, had become polluted in several parts. The Namami Gange Mission is changing this historical wrong. Emphasis is being given to proper treatment of sewage. At the core of our urban development initiatives such as AMRUT and the Smart Cities Mission is the need to balance urban growth with environmental care. The over 13 crore soil health cards distributed to farmers are helping them make informed decisions that will boost their productivity and improve the health of our land, which helps the coming generations. 

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above? 
(I) It is a vital part of India's traditions to have respect for nature. 
(II) People are not using toilets because they neither have access nor the capacity to use one. (III) Under the Swacch Bharat Misiion, people are organizing ‘Swacch Sheher’ Campaigns in different parts of the country.
Only (I)
Only (II)
Only (III)
Both (I) and (II)
All are correct
Solution:
Only statement I is true as per the passage. Refer paragraph 2 -"Respect for nature is at the core of India’s traditions."

Q2. As per the passage, what are the three aspects that can bring a positive change in the society?
Mental consciousness, public awareness and Innovation
Internal Consciousness, love for environment and innovation
Innovation, creativity and internal consciousness
Internal consciousness, public awareness and proactiveness.
None of these
Solution:
The three aspects that can bring a positive change in the society are internal consciousness, public awareness and proactiveness. Refer 2nd paragraph and 4th paragraph.

Q3. A sentence is given in bold in the passage : The imbalances between our greed and necessities have led to grave ecological imbalances. Which of the following could be inferred as the meaning of the statement given in bold?
The greed and necessities of humans are related to each other and this relation causes serious ecological variations.
Humans greed is endless and so his necessities are ignored, which leads to grave ecological imbalances.
The imbalance between greed and necessities is a result of grave ecological imbalances.
Humans have a disproportion between their greed and their necessary requirements. As a result, profound ecological imbalances tend to occur.
None of the Above
Solution:
The line given in bold means that Human have a disproportion between their greed and their necessary requirements. As a result, profound ecological imbalances tend to occur.

Q4. Which of the following is most SIMILAR to the word given in bold in the above passage? ONUS
Exoneration
Obligation
Aid
Malice
Modesty
Solution:
Onus: something that is one's duty or responsibility. Obligation: an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment.

Q5. Which of the following could be the most appropriate title for the above passage?
Spreading Awareness on Environment
Learning Values from the Past
In harmony with Mother Nature
Proactiveness towards Environment
None of the Above
Solution:
The most appropriate title for the passage above is "In harmony with Mother Nature."

Directions (6-10): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. 
Find out the appropriate word in each case. India’s Swachh Bharat Mission is receiving global praise for attempting to close the sanitation gap of nearly 60% of the rural population not having …………(6)………. to a toilet at home in 2014. The NDA government ………(7)………... Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of a clean and healthy country when it launched the ambitious programme. On the eve of Independence, Gandhi saw the lack of a “sense of national or social sanitation” as the …………(8)……… of all diseases among Indians. Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a Swachh movement in 2014 to change that, and four years later the ……..(9)……. show that achieving social change is far from easy. For the BJP-led government at the Centre, the SBM enjoys …….(10)…… the highest priority, and a ₹16,400-crore fund was raised for it during 2015-17 when a special cess was in force. 

Q6.
excess
access
advent
location
facilities
Solution:
"Access to a toilet....." makes the sentence contextually correct. It means approach or entry to a toilet.

Q7.
mandate
enhance
involves
inducing
invoked
Solution:
Invoke means give rise to; evoke. Hence, it is contextually and grammatically correct.

Q8.
caused
root
germ
matter
effect
Solution:
"root of all diseases........" means sanitation is the basic cause, source, or origin of diseases.

Q9.
filed
nature
outcomes
health
range
Solution:
Outcomes means consequences or results. Hence, it fits in the blank correctly.

Q10.
arguably
suddenly
above
regularly
prior
Solution:
'Arguably' fits in the sentence appropriately.

Directions (11-15): Rearrange the following seven sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E), (F) and (G) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below. 
(A) implying that policy decisions are strongly guided by the prevailing inflation. 
(B) But, unlike before, the central bank is closely tied to the objective of price stability 
(C) Hence, with the headline inflation declining to 3.7% for August due to volatile primary food inflation, the RBI will find it difficult to justify 
(D) The upcoming monetary policy announcement of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is beset by multiple complications. 
(E) a rate hike. But this will be a temporary respite. In addition to just the inflationary considerations 
(F) and has become a critical consideration of monetary policy management. 
(G) the recent 13% weakening in the Indian rupee against the US dollar has been significantly sharp 
Q11. Which of the following will be the THIRD sentence after the rearrangement?
B
C
A
F
E
Solution:
The correct sequence is DBACEGF, A

Q12. Which of the following will be the SIXTH sentence after the rearrangement?
G
F
D
B
E
Solution:
The correct sequence is DBACEGF, G

Q13. Which of the following will be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement?
D
G
A
B
F
Solution:
The correct sequence is DBACEGF, B

Q14. Which of the following will be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement?
D
G
F
E
C
Solution:
The correct sequence is DBACEGF, C

Q15. Which of the following will be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement?
A
B
C
G
E
Solution:
The correct sequence is DBACEGF, E

               

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