English Questions For RBI Assistant Mains 2017

Dear Students,

English Questions For RBI Assistant Mains 2017

English Section is a topic that is feared by most of the candidates appearing in the RBI Assistant Prelims and IBPS Clerk Exam. Though the sheer number of concepts and rules may seem intimidating at first, with discipline and the right approach, it is not difficult to master these concepts and their application to questions. Through such English Quizzes for IBPS Clerk, RBI Assistant and other upcoming exams, we will provide you with all types of high-level questions to ace the questions based on new pattern English for RBI Assistant Mains.

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

Today’s world is dominated not by one or two or even several powers, but rather is influenced by dozens of state and non-state actors exercising various kinds of power. A twentieth century dominated first by a few states, then, during the Cold War, by two states, and finally by American pre-eminence at the Cold War’s end, has given way to a twenty-first century dominated by no one. Call it non-polar.

Three factors have brought this about. First, some states have gained power in tandem with their increased economic clout. Second, globalization has weakened the role of all states by enabling other entities to amass substantial power. And, third, American foreign policy has accelerated the relative decline of the United States vis-à-vis others. The result is a world in which power is increasingly distributed rather than concentrated. 

The emergence of a non-polar world could prove to be mostly negative, making it more difficult to generate collective responses to pressing regional and global challenges. More decision makers make it more difficult to make decisions. Non-polarity also increases both the number and potential severity of threats, be they rogue states, terrorist groups, or militias. 

Still, if non-polarity is inevitable, its character is not. A great deal can and should be done to shape the nonpolar world. But order will not emerge on its own. On the contrary, left to its own devices, a non-polar world will become messier over time. 

Resisting the spread of nuclear weapons and unguarded nuclear materials may be as important as any other set of undertakings. If internationally managed enriched-uranium or spent-fuel banks are established, countries could gain access to nuclear power but not come to control the material needed for bombs. Security assurances and defensive systems could be provided to states that might otherwise feel compelled to develop their own nuclear programs to counter those of their neighbors. And robust sanctions could be introduced to influence the behavior of would-be nuclear weapon states. 
Combating terrorism is also essential if the non-polar era is not to turn into a modern Dark Age. There are many ways to weaken existing terrorist organizations by using intelligence, law enforcement resources, and military capabilities. But this is a loser’s game unless something can be done to reduce recruitment. 
Parents, religious figures, and political leaders must delegitimize terrorism by shaming those who embrace it. More importantly, governments must find ways to integrate alienated young men and women into their societies, which requires greater political freedom and economic opportunity. 
Trade also can be a powerful force in a non-polar world by giving states a stake in avoiding conflict, generating greater wealth, and strengthening the foundations of domestic political order—thereby decreasing the chance of state failure as well. To this end, the scope of the World Trade Organization should be extended through the negotiation of future global arrangements that reduce subsidies and both tariff and non-tariff barriers. 

A similar level of effort might be needed to ensure the continued flow of investment. The goal should be to create a World Investment Organization, which, by encouraging cross-border capital flows, would minimize the risk that “investment protectionism” impedes activities that, like trade, are economically beneficial and build political bulwarks against instability. A ‘W10 could encourage transparency on the part of investors, determine when national security is a legitimate reason for prohibiting or limiting investment, and establish a dispute-resolution mechanism. 
More effort also will be needed to prevent state failure and deal with its consequences. The US and other developed countries should enhance their military capacities to deal with the type of threats being faced in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as establish a pool of civilian talent to assist with basic nation-building tasks. Greater economic and military assistance to increase states’ ability to meet their responsibilities to their citizens and neighbors will also be essential. 
Multilateralism will be critical in a non-polar world. To succeed, though, it must be recast to include entities other than the great powers. The United Nations Security Council and the G-8 should be reconstituted to reflect the world of today rather than the post-1945 era, and the participation of non-state actors in multilateral organizations and processes will need to be considered. 
Multilateralism may have to be less comprehensive and less formal, at least initially. Networks will be needed alongside organizations. Getting everyone to agree on everything will be difficult; instead, we should consider accords with fewer parties and narrower goals. 

Trade is something of a model here, insofar as bilateral and regional accords are filling the vacuum created by the failure to conclude a global trade round. The same is true of climate change: agreement on certain aspects of the problem (say, deforestation) or involving only some countries (the major carbon emitters, for example) may prove feasible, whereas an accord that includes every country and tries to resolve every issue may not. 
Multilateralism a la carte is likely to be the order of the day. This is less than optimal, but in a non-polar world, what is best may well prove the enemy of the possible. 

Q1. Which of the following titles best suits the passage? 
(a) Living in a Multipolar World. 
(b) The Age of Nonpolarity. 
(c) A New World Order 
(d) Multilateralism in the 21st century.
(e) Agreement

S1. Ans.(b)
Sol. The passage is about the current non-polar World where power and influence is diffuse. What are the challenges every nation faces in such a world? What are the solutions to the problems? How nations can prevent slipping into the chaos? Option (c) is too broad and general. Multilateralism option (d) is a minor part of the passage. Hence option (b) is the best title.

Q2. According to the writer, the twentieth century international relations were principally... 
(a) characterized by a world dominated not by one or two but several states 
(b) characterized by a world with numerous centres with meaningful power. 
(c) characterized by a change from multi-polar to bi-polar to a uni-polar world. 
(d) characterized by the supremacy the United States.
(e) characterized by the international relations

S2. Ans.(c)
Sol. The passage states this clearly. The question asks you about the 20th century and not the 21st. The answer is stated in the first paragraph itself. Option (b) is the answer for the 21st century.

Q3. The writer is likely to disagree with which of the following? 
(a) In a multi-polar system, no power dominates. 
(b) Non-state actors pose a threat in the non-polar world. 
(c) American foreign policy contributed to the emergence of a non-polar world. 
(d) Cold War by two states poses immense threat to the security
(e) None of the above.

S3. Ans.(d)
Sol. None of the above. The writer is likely to agree with all the three statements. Option (a) will be acceptable to the writer because of any power dominated in a multi-polar world it would become uni-polar. Option (b) is stated in the first and the third paragraphs. Option (c) is implied in the second paragraph. The third factor contributing to the emergence of a non-polar world is mentioned as “And, third, American foreign policy has accelerated the relative decline of the United States vis-a-vis others. The result is a world in which power is increasingly distributed rather than concentrated.”

Q4. Which of the following describes the writer’s attitude towards a non-polar world? 
(a) A non-polar world is unavoidable, but the nations are not doing enough to make the world a better and safer place. 
(b) A non-polar world is avoidable; however, the nations can do enough to make such a world a better and safer place. 
(c) A non-polar world poses immense threat to the security of the nations because of the power exercised by non-state actors; the developed nations must deal with these threats militarily. 
(d) A non-polar world becomes a dangerous place as no decision can be taken to pressing global challenges because of the increasing number of decision makers.
(e) A non-polar developed nations should enhance development .

S4. Ans.(a)
Sol. The writer expresses his opinion in the fourth paragraph. “Still, if non-polarity is inevitable, its character is not (or the world is not doing enough). A great deal can and should be done to shape the non-polar world. But order will not emerge on its own. On the contrary, left to its own devices, a non-polar world will “become messier over time.” This is option (a). Though the other options may be factually correct they do not capture the author’s attitude.

Q5. According to the writer the most effective way to combat terrorism is...By preventing recruitment of men and women to terrorism. 
(a) By involving the influential groups in a society to condemn terrorism. 
(b) By providing political and economic freedom to society at large. 
(c) By weakening terrorism through intelligence and military capabilities.
(d) By weakening investment protectionism and formal multilateralism.
(e) By initiating accelerated the relative decline

S5. Ans.(c)
Sol. The sixth and seventh paragraphs give us the answer as option (c). All other options are factually correct, and are cited by the writer as measures to combat terrorism. However, the most effective measure is hinted at by the writer at the end of the seventh paragraph. The passage states: Combating terrorism is also essential.... More importantly, governments must find ways to integrate alienated young men and women into their societies, which requires greater political freedom and economic opportunity. This long term solution is a cure — the others deal with the symptoms.

Q6. The writer is likely to agree with which of the following? 
(a) The developed nations should enhance their military capability to deal with some of the problems of a non-polar world. 
(b) The WTO should be strengthened to deal with the ill effects of investment protectionism that may arise in a non-polar word. 
(c) The United Nations and the G8 should be expanded, and non state actors excluded from them to play critical roles in a non-polar world. 
(d) An all-inclusive and formal multilateralism should be promoted and encouraged for the sustainability of a non-polar world.
(e) American foreign policy has accelerated the relative decline of the United States.

S6. Ans.(a)
Sol. “More effort also will be needed to prevent state failure and deal with its consequences. The US and other developed countries should enhance their military capacities to deal with the type of threats being faced in Iraq and Afghanistan....” supports option (a) as it is directly the writer’s point of view. Option (b) is incorrect because the writer is talking about a WIO and not WTO. WTO is mentioned only in relation to trade. Option (c) is incorrect because the writer is in favour of including the non state actors in multilateral organisations. Option (d) is incorrect because the writer is against an all inclusive multilateralism; the passage states, “Multilateralism may have to be less comprehensive and less formal, at least initially”.

Q7. Which of the following is most nearly similar in meaning of the word feasible as used in the passage?
(a) suitable
(b) opposed
(c) favorite
(d) forward
(e) comprehend

S7. Ans.(a)
Sol. Suitable

Q8. Which of the following is most nearly similar in meaning of the word bulwarks as used in the passage?
(a) alienate
(b) injury
(c) rampart
(d) beneficial
(e) harm

S8. Ans.(c)
Sol. Bulwarks -a defensive wall, an extension of a ship's sides above the level of the deck.
synonyms- wall, rampart, fortification, parapet, stockade, palisade, barricade, embankment

Q9. Which of the following is most nearly similar in meaning of the word Clout as used in the passage?
(a) clear
(b) influence
(c) true
(d) genuine 
(e) ethical

S9. Ans.(b)
Sol. Clout- a heavy blow with the hand or a hard object, influence or power, especially in politics or business, hit (someone or something) hard
synonyms- influence, sway, weight, smack, slap, thump, punch, blow, hit, knock, bang, cuff, box

Q10. Which of the following is most nearly Opposite in meaning of the word  inevitable as used in the passage?
(a)imminent
(b)escapable 
(c)inexorable
(d)decided
(e)assured

S10. Ans.(b)
Sol. Inevitable- certain to happen; unavoidable, a situation that is unavoidable.
synonyms-unavoidable, inescapable, bound to happen, sure to happen, inexorable