Quiz: Reading Comprehension

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Directions (Q.1-10): Read the
following passage carefully and answer the questions given below. Certain
words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them.

An earthquake is a
sudden violent shaking of the ground, typically causing great destruction, as a
result of volcanic action or movements deep within the earth’s crust. The Nepal
quake resulted from a collision between the Indian crustal block and the Eurasian
continent. Geophysicists know that the entire Indian subcontinent is being
driven slowly but surely beneath Nepal at a speed of five centimetres a year.
This generates a five-metre contraction over a century and results in silent
stress build-up in the inner crustal rock. An earthquake occurs when stress
accumulation
reaches critical point. Over millions of years, the squeezing has crushed the
Himalayas, raising mountains and triggering earthquakes on a regular basis.
This will continue. This dynamic process will also induce stress accumulation
in India. The Gujarat earthquake of 2001 was a result of this process. This
shows that a quake is sure to occur in future. Like Japan, Nepal is also
located in one of the most seismic active zones. “An earthquake repeats
itself”, which is a Japanese proverb, is apt here as well. Earthquake
forecasting is a kind of historical science. If you can find documentation of a
quake in ancient literature or legend, that place is bound to be earthquake
prone. I pose this question next: do you know the earthquake history of your
region? But let me not be an alarmist. The India Meteorological Department
keeps track of all this. However, I suppose most people don’t know. It is
perfectly natural that people do not worry about such things; it’s the same in
Japan as well. As scientists, we try to create awareness about earthquake risk
in the form of public lectures, mass media campaigns, science shows and
governmental meetings. Therefore, “risk recognition” is the first step towards
disaster mitigation. In Nepal, researchers did track active earthquake history
and issued warnings about a possible and destructive quake. For example, my
colleague visited Nepal frequently to research strong ground shaking to help in
disaster mitigation studies. Earthquake science still does not have a tool for
imminent
earthquake prediction. Therefore, being prepared for one is a crucial, and,
often, the only step for disaster mitigation.
In an earthquake,
most of the damage is caused by collapsing buildings. In Nepal, most victims
died this way. This is a major problem confronting architects. Recent
architectural developments, however, allow for the construction of
quake-resistant buildings, but such construction is more expensive than an
ordinary building. Therefore, cost-effective solutions are also a challenge.
The Japanese believe and agree that anti-disaster investments are lifesavers.
If the Indian government makes a public investment in this area, it should
first come to some sort of social agreement in disaster mitigation. The role of
the mass media is also important because it plays a key role in creating
awareness about disaster preparedness. This must be emphasised. We must
remember that it is people and commercial companies that are involved in
construction and not the government. So, disaster mitigation cannot achieve
optimal results unless there is understanding and cooperation. The media should
also highlight the benefits of public and commercial investments. Japanese
anti-quake construction technology places a premium on high performance. Hence,
what is suitable for Japanese conditions may not work elsewhere, in terms of
applicability and cost. I suppose the export of such technology may not solve
problems elsewhere. Therefore, the Government of India must develop an
anti-disaster technology that suits Indian construction and conditions.
Disaster mitigation
measures also require risk evaluation for rural and urban areas. In high-risk
regions, there must be public investment. Policymakers in India must look at
those parts of the country that have high quake potential. Records show that
the western, coastal and northern regions are at high risk. Another important
factor is occurrence frequency and probability”. Shorter intervals
between quakes indicate a high probability. At the same time, longer intervals
also produce high probability. An evaluation of these factors will give one the
basic information required. I would also like to add that earthquake research
can’t operate on a commercial basis, so government funding is a must for
scientific investigation. The Japanese government operates the Headquarters for
Earthquake Research Promotion based on Special Measure Law on Earthquake
Disaster Prevention. Its director is a minister and its committees consist of
government officers, governors, professors and researchers. The most important
role of this special inter-ministry organisation is to publish probabilistic
seismic hazard maps resulting from probability evaluation of earthquake
occurrences. It also conducts unified national earthquake research — as
geological surveys, earthquake monitoring and computer modelling. The results
from all these projects produce the probability of earthquake occurrences. For
instance, its research has shown that a strong shaking probability for the
Tokyo Metropolitan area for next 30 years exceeds 80 per cent. Earthquake risk
is defined in the following way — multiplication of earthquake magnitude,
probability and social fragility. Scientific data can only estimate magnitude
and probability. This shows that if a place is “very fragile”, even a small
earthquake can result in disaster. “High fragility” is the state of being
unprepared by having non-quake-resistant construction. Mankind has no control
over the magnitude and probability of a quake but architectural engineering can
help reduce the fragility. Japanese quake-resistant house and building
compliance is now about 80 per cent.
                                                                              -Source Emplyment News, Last week edition
Q.1.What is the synonym of the
word “imminent”?
1) Eminent
2) Impending
3) Prominent
4) Noteworthy
5) All of the above
Q.2.Which of the following is not
the synonym of the word “accumulation”?
1) Precipitate
2) Saturate
3) Assemble
4) Amass
5) Dissipate
Q.3.Choose an appropriate title
for the passage.
1) Himalayan Disaster
2) The Destruction
3) Japan and
Quake Preparedness
4) Exodus and The Warfare
5) Japan Forwardness
Q.4. According to the passage,what does the
author say about his responsibility?
1) Offering door to door help and distributing
necessary things like water, food etc.
2) To make people feel safe.
3) To help the ones in need.
4) To create
awareness about earthquake risks.
5) All of the above
Q.5. According to the passage, what is the
profession of the author?
1) Pilot
2) None of these
3) Army Personnel
4) Doctor
5) Scientist
Q.6. Which of the following is true according
to the passage?
1) Risk
Recognition is the first step towards disaster mitigation
2) In high risk region, the private companies should
take care of the construction as Govt. companies always fail.
3) Japan has been failing again and again in disaster
mitigation.
4) The proper mechanism in Japan is to predict the
exact nature of the quake.
5) All of the above
Q.7. Which of the
following is not the synonym of the word “confronting”?
1) Blaming
2) Target
3) Oppose
4) Separated
5) Responsible
Q.8. why does the
author say the phrase “occurrence frequency and probability”?
1) Because he want to show the importance of this in
one’s life.
2) Because he
want to draw our attention on these three characteristics of the quake.
3) He want us to have these three things as soon as
quake strikes for keeping the history of region.
4) All of the above
5) None of the above
Q.9. Which of the following did Japan use to
mitigate the effect of quakes?
1) Japan has dedicated one organization for marking
the earthquake probable region.
2) They also conducted geological surveys.
3) One of its research showed that a strong shaking
probability for the Tokyo Metropolitan area for next 30 years exceeds 80 per
cent.
4) All of the
above
5) None of the above
Q.10. Which of the following is not the
synonym of the word “emphasised”?
1) Accentuate
2) Highlight
3) Spotlight
4) Stress
5) None of
the above



Answers:


1.2) Impending
2.5) Dissipate
3.3) Japan and Quake Preparedness
4.4) To create awareness about earthquake risks.
5.5) Scientist
6.1) Risk Recognition is the first step towards disaster mitigation
7.3) Oppose
8.2) Because he want to draw our attention on these three characteristics of the quake.
9.4) All of the above

10.5) None of the above