Reasoning – Connectives Part II

Hello Readers,
One of our ardent readers and the most helpful guy
on BankersAdda, TempleRun aka VT, once again came to rescue all the RBI
aspirants. You all must have read his last post. As he promised, here we are
presenting to you “Connectives Part II”.
For all those who haven’t read his last post,
follow the link –

Thanks VT 🙂

Unless =जब तक न / यदि नहीं

Let’s start with an example:

Unless You are rich, you don’t ride in a BMW. (Bahan MayaWati)

Few Examples – Statements starting with
Unless:
1) Unless someone has Aadhar Card, don’t transfer
money into his A/C.
2) Unless the girl smiles, don’t propose
her.

Unless’ is an
operator.
You are rich’– I denote it by ‘A
You don’t ride in a BMW’– I denote it by ‘B’

Now statement reduces to Unless
A, B

I am using Negation Symbol – ~  and 
Hence/therefore=>

You are not rich’ – ~A   and  You ride in a BMW’ – ~B
You don’t ride
in a BMW’
is already a negative
statement, if we apply negation (
~), it will change into a positive statement–‘You ride in a
BMW’
.

Here also we have Certain Cases and uncertain Cases:
Unless You are rich, you don’t ride in a BMW.

Certain Cases: matlab ye
definitely true hoga
1) You ride in a BMW (~B) means You are rich (A).
2) You are not rich (~A) means You don’t ride in a BMW (B).

Understood ?
Agar Aap BMW ki Sawari karte ho to Aap  pakka paise wale ho
Agar aap Paise wale nhi ho to Aap BMW ki Sawari nhi karte …Aapki
Aukat Cycle chalne ki he
Think about it !!

 Above 2 Sentences can
be written as:

                     ~B => A 
 and  
~A => B

Uncertain Cases: yaha kuch keh
nhi sakte, sahi bhi ho sakta he aur galat bhi
1) You are
rich (A) => You might be using
Honda City, Wagon-R, Yamaha, Luna (Uncertain)
2) You
don’t ride in a BMW (B) => Poor
only ? No, Kuch paise wale log bhi miser (
मक्खीचूस) hote he. So its again Uncertain.

                 A =>
Uncertain
  and   B => Uncertain

So our final Conclusion for operator ‘unless’ is:
Unless A, B
  ~B=>A
  ~A=>B

Let’s solve few MCQs. Generally two types of Questions are
asked:
Type 1:
Unless you are Chinese, you don’t make cheap products.
P) You are Chinese
Q) You make cheap products
R) You are not Chinese
S) You don’t make cheap products
1) PQ    2) RS   3) RQ  
4) PS
Solution:
For ‘Unless’ We
have standard formula as 
~B=>A  and ~A=>B
Statement: Unless you are Chinese, you
don’t make cheap products
Hera A =You are Chinese
        B =You don’t make cheap products

1) ~B=>A: You make cheap products=> You are Chinese
You make cheap products in option is Q and You are Chinese in Option is P. So our final answer is QP.
But not in Options.

2) ~A=>B: You are not Chinese =>You don’t make cheap products
You  are not Chinese
in Option is R and You don’t make
cheap products in Option is S. Our
final answer is RS.
Option 2 is answer

Type 2:
Unless the girl winks, don’t go near her.
1) She has winked so I will go near her.
2) I will not go near her since she has winked.
3) She has not winked so I will not go near her.
4) Both 2 and 3
Solution:
For ‘Unless’ We
have standard formula as 
~B=>A  and ~A=>B
Given Statement: Unless
the girl winks, don’t go near her
Here A =The Girl winks
        B =Don’t go near her
1) ~B=>A: Go
near her => Girl has winked (
Not in Options)
2) ~A=>B: Girl
has not winked => don’t go near
her. (yes Option 3)
So Final Answer is Option 3
Either-Or = दो में से एक
First deal with the meaning of Either-Or

Either-Or describes a situation in which there is a choice between two
different plans of action, but both together are not possible.

Example: It’s an either-or situation – we can buy a new car this year or we can go on holiday, but we
can’t do both
.

Let’s start with an example:
It is either Temple Run
or Candy Crush.
Either-Or’ is Operator
It is Temple Run’ – I will denote it by ‘A’
It is Candy Crush’ I will denote it by ‘B

I am using here negation (~) Symbol and
hence/therefore (
=>)
~A means It is not Temple Run
~B means It is not Candy Crush

Nothing to explain here ..Just remember 2 formulae.
1) If it is not Temple Run (~A) then it is Candy Crush (B)
2) If it is not Candy Crush (~B) then it is Temple Run (A)

 Above sentences can be written as:
                    ~A=>B    and   ~B=>A

Note:
~A=>B 
and
~B=>is
not same as A=>
~B  and  B=>~A
It means, If I am saying
It is Temple Run=>We are not sure Candy Crush exist or not. Only if it is
given that It is not Temple Run then only We can say that it must be a Candy
Crush. (Read it again)

Either A or B
 ~A =>B
 ~B =>A

Few MCQs:

Type 1:
She is either Neha or Meena.
P) She is Neha
Q) She is Meena
R) She is not Neha
S) She is not Meena
1) PQ     2) QS    3) RQ   
4) None
Solution:
Standard formula for Either-Or is  ~A=>B  and ~B=>A
Given Statement: She is
either Neha or Meena
Here ‘A’ =She is Neha
       ‘B’ =She is Meena
1) ~A=>B: She
is not Neha=>She is Meena
She is not Neha in Option is R and She is Meena in option is
Q, means RQ
Final Answer is Option 3
2) ~B=>A: No
need to find. We have already got our answer.
Type 2:
Either I give up or I work hard.
P) I will give up, still I’ll keep on working hard.
Q) I am not going to give up, hence I will work  hard.
R) I don’t want to work hard, therefore I will give up.
S) Both Q and R
Solution:
Standard formula for Either-Or is  ~A=>B  and ~B=>A
Given statement: Either
I give up or I work hard.
A’ =I give up
B’ =I work hard
1) ~A=>B: I
don’t give up=>I will work hard. Obvious choice is Option Q
     But in Option We have Both Q and R, so let’s
check R too.
2) ~B=>A: I
am not working hard=>I will give up. Option R.
     So our final Answer is Option S (Both Q
and R)
 ———————The End———————
We learned about four operator viz. If, Only If, Unless and EitherOr.
But full confusion hai, ryt ?If me kya formula hoga, Only if me kya etc. Confusion door karne
ke liye Let’s make a table:
     If A, then B
If/When/Whenever/Blank all are same
         A=>B
   
     ~B=>~A
    Only if A, then B
Only if A, B 
is same as B, Only if A
         B=>A
      ~A=>~B
    Unless
A, then B
     
       ~A=>B
       ~B=>A
    Either
A or B
     
       ~A=>B
   
       ~B=>A

How to remember the formulae ?
1) If you observe, then you
can see that formula of If and
Only if are   opposite to each other.
                         
A=>B —————–B=>A
                       ~B=>~A————–~A=>~B
Though both Operator has ‘if’ in it, their meaning is
different.
Remember it as रिश्ता वही सोच नई . dono ek hi family se belong karte hain (Only If ka
surname If he) but inka
लक्ष्य  alag  hai.

2) Formula for Unless and Either-Or
are same. There should be no  confusion
at all.
                           ~A=>B    and   ~B=>A
dono different family se belong
karte hain par inka
मक़सद ek hi he
यह रिश्ता क्या केहलाता है ??

How to solve the question in Exam ?
Step
1:
First read the question carefully. Sometime they ask “which statement logically follow the given statement” and sometime they ask about ‘negation’ of the given statement.
We have learned about the former (logically follow). Negation is a different
topic.
If
BA gives me the permission, I’ll write that in the next article.

Step
2:
Never look at options first. After finding which type of statement it is (if,only if, unless,
either-or) ,apply formula then match it with the given options.

PS.
1) Ignore Grammar mistakes.
‘If’ I was not able to explain it lucidly, 
then ‘sorry’ for wasting your time.
2) Any Corrections,
Clarification, Criticism and Compliment (4C’s) 
welcome at templerunmania20@gmail.com