Reasoning – Connectives

Hello Readers,
One of our ardent readers and the most helpful guy on BankersAdda, TempleRun aka VT, provided us the post on Connectives. Here we are sharing with you the same. Hope you like the post!!!!

Questions on Connectives frequently appears in exams like CAT, IIFT,SNAP and Banking Entrance .Last year around 4-5 questions in Reasoning Section of RBI Grade B Phase -1 were from Connectives.
Before going into detail, let’s deal with some basic concepts.

What are Connectives?
Oxford dictionary defines it as: A word or phrase whose function is to link other linguistic units.

If I say “I am preparing for Banking Exams .I can clear IBPS PO”. This is an example of Simple Statement.

When we add these two simple sentences with some ‘connectives’ (if, only if, unless, either or), then it is called Compound statement.

Few Examples of Compound Sentences:
1) If you are preparing for banking exams, then you can clear IBPS.
2) Only if you follow Bankersadda, you can clear IBPS.

Here If and Only If are operator .If you remove If and Only if from the beginning of the sentence, the meaning of the sentence gets changed.

Ok fine. We are going to learn about four operators here:

If, Only If, Unless, Either-Or

Let’s deal with Hindi meaning of these operators first:

  • If = अगर, यदि 
  • Only If = केवल
  • Unless = जब तक नहीं / यदि  नहीं
  • Either-or = दो मैं से एक

Now, We will go one by one. Let’s start with If

If = अगर, यदि

Let’s start with an example:
If you are a BA’s user, then you are preparing for banking.
{BA stands for Bankersadda}

Here ‘If’ is an Operator

‘You are a BA’s User’ – I denote it by ‘A’
‘You are preparing for banking’ – I denote it by ‘B’

Now Statement reduces to If A, then B

I am using ~ (negation symbol) and => (hence/implies)

If I am saying “You are not a BA’s User”: I denote it by ~A

Similarly ”You are not preparing for banking”:~B

Two Certain Case and Two Uncertain Case We can find here.

Certain Cases : matlab ye definitely true hoga

1) You are a BA’s user, then you are preparing for banking.
2) You are not preparing for banking, you are not a BA’s user.

Above Sentence can be written as:

A => B
~B => ~A

Samjh me aya ?


1) Agar aap BA use karte ho to aap pakka Banking ki tyari kar rhe ho
2) Agar aap banking ki tyari nhi kar rhe ho to aap BA ka user nhi ho

Think about it !!

Uncertain Cases : matlab yaha kuch keh nhi sakte. Sahi bhi ho sakta he aur galat bhi

1) You are preparing for banking => You can be a BA’s user or any other site (Uncertain)
2) You are not a BA’s user => You may be preparing for CAT or ITPS (Institute of Terrorist Personnel Selection) again Uncertain

B => (Uncertian) and ~A => (Uncertain)

If you are a BA’s user, then you are preparing for banking.

If/when/whenever/Everytime/blank all are same.

Blank means there is no connective given before the sentence.

Work hard and you will clear IBPS PO is same as If You work hard, you will clear IBPS PO.

So Final Conclusion and our Standard Formula:

If A,
then B
A = >
B
~B =
> ~A

Let’s solve few MCQs. Generally two types of Questions are asked .

Type 1:
If I sing, then my wife dances.
A) I sang.
B) I did not sing.
C) My wife danced.
D) My wife did not dance.

Options are 1)AD 2)CA 3)DB 4)DA

Solution:
The above statement is of type “If A, then B”
Here A = I sing and B = My Wife dances.

We know If A, then B means A=>B and ~B=>~A (hai na?)

1) A=> B means: I sing then My Wife dances. (I sang is Option A, My
Wife danced is C . So Answer is AC But not in Options )

2) ~B=>~A means: My wife did not dance then I did not sing (Option
D and Option B. So our answer is DB means Option 3)

Type 2:

If you are a banker, then you are a government employee.
a) You are a government employee means you are a banker
b) You are not a government employee means you are not a banker.
c) You are not a banker means you are a government employee.
d) You are a banker means you are not a government emplolyee.

Solution:
If A, then B means A=>B and ~B=>~A

A=>B means You are a banker then you are a government employee.

~B=>~A means You are not a government employee means you are not a banker.

Hmm …option B (First wala A=>B Options me nhi he)

Note :
What if the sentence is like : You can clear IBPS ,If you follow BA. 
darne ki jarurat nhi he ….

It is same as If you follow BA, You can clear IBPS.

Matlab B, If A can be written as If A, B .Now We can use our Standard formula.

Only If = केवल


Let’s start with an example, Only if it is a Tuesday, I eat veg food.

‘Only if’ is an Operator.

“It is a Tuesday” – I denote it by ‘A’

“I eat veg food” –I denote it by ‘B’

Now statement reduces to Only If A, B

As explained above:
~A means It is not Tuesday.
~B means I don’t eat veg food.

Here also we find Two Certain Cases and Two Uncertain.

Certain Cases: matlab definitely True hoga


1) I eat veg food means it is Tuesday.
2) It is not Tuesday means I don’t veg food

Agar aap Veg food kha rhe ho to vo din pakka Tuesday he
Agar aaj Tuesday nhi he to aap veg food nhi kha rhe

Above sentences can also be written as

  B => A and ~A => ~B

Uncertain Cases:

1) It is Tuesday => you can eat everything and drink everything including alcohol. Uncertain…Any doubt?

See, If and Only If both are different.


In the case of ‘Only If’ – A is necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of B. Where as in the case of ‘If’ – A is sufficient condition for B, but is not a necessary condition.

2) I don’t eat veg food => Sunday, Monday including Tuesday bhi ho sakta he ..again Uncertain.

So above two can be expressed as:

A => Uncertain and ~B => Uncertain

Final Conclusion and our Standard Formula:
‘If’ and ‘Only If’ are reverse of each other. रिश्ता वही सोच नई


Only if
A, B
B = >
A
~A =
> ~B

Let’s make a combined table:

If
A, then B
Or
B , If A
A => B
~B => ~A
Only
If A ,B
Or
B ,Only If A
B => A
~A => ~B

Observe karne se yhi dikh rha ki ..Both are reverse of Each other.

Fine, I would say better mug up these formulae even if you didn’t understand the theory part because Exams me formula ki kaam aate he.

Let’s solve few MCQs on ‘Only if’. Again Two types of Question

Type 1:
Only if I practice regularly, I will get an interview call from IBPS.
A) I practice regularly
B) I will never get an interview call
C) I don’t practice regularly
D) I will get an interview call from IBPS
Options – 1) AB 2) DA 3) CB 4) Both 2 & 3

Solution:
Only If A, B
Formulae?

B => A and ~A => ~B

Only if I practice regularly, I will get an interview call from IBPS.

Apply formula now :
1) B=>A: I will get an Interview call from IBPS, I Practice regularly

Now In options I will get an Interview call from IBPS is D and I Practice regularly is A …so Our Final Answer is DA means Option 2

Wait Both 2 and 3 are also there in option .So lets Check 3

2) ~A=>~B:I don’t practice regularly, I will never get an interview call

Now in Options I don’t Pracice regularly is C and I will never get an Interview call is B .. so Answer is CB means option 3

Final Answer is Both 2 and 3

Type 2:
Uthappa scores runs, only if he is sent in as an opener.
a) Uthappa didn’t score runs, although he was sent in as an opener.
b) Uthappa scored runs, as he was sent in as opener.
c) Uthappa was not sent in as an opener and he scored runs.
d) Uthappa scored runs, although he was not sent in as an opener.


Solution :
B, Only If A is same as Only If A, B
Only If A , B means B=>A and ~A=>~B

1) B=>A: Uthappa Scores runs => he is sent as an opener.
So our answer is Option B

‘Unless’ and ‘Either-Or’ in Next article.

PS:
1) Ignore my English Grammar (lol). ‘If’ I was not able to explain it lucidly then ‘sorry’ for wasting your time.

2) Any Corrections, Clarifications, Compliment and Criticism (4C’s), welcome at templerunmania20@gmail.com

©TempleRun(aka VT)