Directions (1- 5): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them:
(A) If the effect is real it will have a big effect on cosmology and space navigation.
(B) If could rewrite the laws of physics.
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(C) A space probe launched 30 years ago has come under the influence of a force, baffling the scientists.
(D) The effect shows no sign of getting weaker as the space craft travels deeper into the space.
(E) Scientists are considering the possibility that the force had revealed a new force of nature.
(F) The Pioneer-10, which took the first pictures of the Jupiter, is being pulled back to the sun by an unknown force,
1. Which should be the SIXTH sentence?
2. Which should be the FOURTH sentence?
3. Which should be the FIRST sentence?
4. Which should be the THIRD sentence?
5. Which should be the FIFTH sentence?
Directions: (6 – 10): Read the following passage carefully and answers the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Seventeen years after the first successful transplantation of cells harvested from the umbilical cord, the use of cord blood as a viable alternative to bone marrow as a sources of stem cells is gaining importance. The cord blood that remains in the placenta after birth is routinely discarded as waste despite the fact that it has sufficient quantity of stem cells capable of curing diseases. Although precise data are not available, it is thought that 5,000 to 6,000 cord blood transplantations have been performed worldwide. With the number of births in India running into several millions a year, the potential to fight disease and save lives is immense even if the cord blood from a small fraction of newborns can be collected and preserved. There are compelling reasons for saving cord blood – the avoidance of the need for a perfect tissue match required in bone marrow transplants, the low rate of viral contamination and ready availability. The scope for using the cord blood later in the event of the child suffering from certain diseases is also a major attraction.
It is this unique feature that has prompted some private companies in India, as in the developed countries, to get up facilities to collect and store cord blood, for a huge fee of course. Like their counterparts in the West, most of them resort to emotional marketing to sell the concept of cord blood serving as a biological insurance for use by the same child or another family member at a later date. How wise or relevant is it to save the newborn’s cord blood private banks? The answer is not clear as no reliable estimates of the demand for stored cord blood are available. Empirical data on such contingencies are also scarce. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the chances of a child needing his or her own cord blood to treat a disease vary from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 200, 000. While medicine as it is currently practiced does not allow use of a child’s cord blood in the treatment of his or her genetic or leukemia, it does have it uses in treating other diseases. Private cord blood banking is much more relevant where a member of the family may have a current or potential need for stem cell transplantation.
There is no disputing, the scientific fact the cord blood is a potential weapon to treat many diseases; and the number or diseases so treatable are likely, to increase in future. A good strategy might be to have several publicity funded cord blood banks co-existing with private banks. Modeled along the lines to blood banks, the public cord blood banks can draw on altruism to get voluntary donations; and since cord blood is far more expensive to process than blood, it can be made available to suitable recipients on payment of a reasonable collection, processing and storage charge. At least one private cord blood bank relying on voluntary donations is in place. Priority must be given to the training of doctors and staff in the proper collection techniques. This is of paramount importance as the time of clamping the umbilical cord to collect cord blood is critical. Clamping the cord too early will increase the volume of cord blood collected but leave the new-born with a reduced blood volume and an increased risk of anemia in later life. To prevent exploitation of poor and vulnerable people, getting the written consent of parents for cord collection as well as the institution of in – house ethics committees must be made mandatory, and the legal requirement strictly enforced.
6. Private companies indulge in emotional marketing:
(1) to sell cord blood.
(2) to set up cord blood banks
(3) to buy cord blood.
(4) to sell insurance packages.
(5) to make long term association with the customers
7. From this passage we can infer that:
(1) Cord blood transplant will soon replace bone marrow transplants.
(2) Cord blood is an alternative to stem – cells.
(3) Cord blood can be used in treating blood cancer.
(4) Cord blood is a source of stem cells.
(5) Cord blood is most important part of the blood
8. Which of the following has not been cited as a reason to promote the use of cord blood?
(1) There is no need for tissue matching
(2) It has scope for use in future.
(3) There is no dearth of cord blood.
(4) There is no scope for viral infection.
(5) None of these
9. The author is in favor of setting up cord blood
(1) as a private enterprise.
(2) in the public sector.
(3) aided by public support.
(4) 1 & 3
(5) Only 1
10. Cord blood banks can draw on altruism to get voluntary donations means:
(1) They can appeal to the well-disposed in society.
(2) They can approach the well-to-do
(3) They can bank on the well-equipped.
(4) They can tap on well-organized sources.
(5) None of these
The arrangement is as follows –
C -> F -> D -> E -> A -> B