Friday, 22 July 2016

ENglish - VinglisH!

Dear Students,
English Section in the exam is a section where some students score very well but others even fail to clear cut-off. Learning Grammar is really essential to score good marks. But, what happens is that students from various boards where lesser attention is paid on English language fail to apply grammar during the examination even if they know the rules. 

So, conclusion is that practicing in some interesting way so that the things remain intact in your mind is important. Keeping this in mind, we have launched this series of "ENglish - VinglisH". We have discussed some basic sentence errors and use of some basic words in English. Also, we learnt about the basic categorization of Tenses. Now, we will proceed with detailed explanation of every type of tense - one in a day.

This is the Seventeenth post of ENglish - VinglisH. Hope you people like it.

So, lets start now!!

TENSES are that part of grammar which drastically changes the meaning of a sentences. Tenses play a vital role in Communication otherwise you can do blunders like describing an event which happened in past as an event of future.


Today we will discuss about Present Perfect Tense.


Present Perfect Tense - Most Important Tense To Learn!

This tense indicates either that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the past or that the action extends to the present.

Identification:

We use the present perfect for actions which started in the past and are still happening now OR for finished actions which have a connection to the present.

Identification from Hindi Sentences:

इन वाक्यो में वर्त्तमान में किसी कार्य का पूर्ण रूप से, समाप्त होना पाया जाता है। हिंदी के वाक्यो के अंत में


चुका हे, चुके है, चुकी हे, चुकी है, लिया हे, गया हे, गयी हे, गए है , आदि पाय जाते है।

Ex-
मैं घर पहुँचा हूँ - I have arrived home
राम स्कूल जा चुका है । - Ram has gone to school.
उसने एक साँप मार दिया है । - He has killed a snake. 
उन्होंने अपने सारे पाठ याद कर लिए हैं । - They have learnt all their lessons.

Use of Verb{has/have + past participle}

The present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb 'have or has' and the past participle of a verb.


When should you use Present Perfect and where Simple Past Tense?
  • When an action is finished and the result is known: use Present Perfect Tense. Ex - I've lost my keys! (The result is that I can't get those keys now).
  • When an action is finished and result is not known: use Simple Present Tense. Ex - I lost my keys yesterday. It was terrible! (Now there is no result. We do not know that whether I got the keys again or not.).
  • With an unfinished time word (this week, this month, today): use Present Perfect Tense. Ex - I have seen Neeta this week.
  • With a finished time word (last week, last month, yesterday): use Simple Present Tense. Ex - I saw Neeta last week.
  • A finished action in someone's life (when the person is still alive, life experience): use Present Perfect Tense. Ex -  My brother has visited Australia three times.
  • A finished action in someone's life (when the person is dead): use Simple Present Tense. Ex -  Mahatma Gandhi visited Africa several times in his life.
  • Unfinished actions that started in the past and continue to the present: use Present Perfect Tense. Ex - I've known Amit for ten years (and I still know him).
  • Finished actions: I knew Amit for ten years (but then he moved away and we lost touch).
In every form of Tense, there are four types of sentences:1

1. Positive/ Affirmative Sentence (simple statement is used)
2. Negative Sentence (no, not is used)
3. Interrogative Sentence (Question is asked)
4. Interrogative - Negative Sentence (Question is asked with no, or not)




Note:  
We use the present perfect of 'be' when someone has gone to a place and returned:

A: Where have you been?
B: I’ve just been out to the supermarket.

A: Have you ever been to San Francisco?
B: No, but I’ve been to Los Angeles.

But when someone has not returned we use have/has gone:

A: Where is Maria? I haven’t seen her for weeks.
B: She's gone to Paris for a week. She’ll be back tomorrow.

Tomorrow we will discuss "Present Perfect Continuous Tense" in Detail.







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