Thursday, 29 September 2016

English Quiz For IBPS Exam 2016

Directions (1-8): Read the following passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the five given alternatives.

How quickly things change in the technology business! A decade ago, IBM was the awesome and undisputed king of the computer trade, universally feared and respected. A decade ago, two little companies called Intel and Microsoft were mere blips on the radar screen of the industry, upstart startups that had signed on to make the chips and software for IBM’s new line of personal computers. Though their products soon became industry standards, the two companies remained protected children of the market leader.
What has happened since is a startling reversal of fortune? IBM is being ravaged by the worst crisis in the company’s 79-year history. It is undergoing its fifth restructuring in the past seven years as well as seemingly endless rounds of job cuts and firings that have eliminated 100,000 jobs since 1985. Last week, IBM announced to its shell-shocked investors that it lost $4.97 billion last year-the biggest loss in American corporate history.
And just when IBM is losing ground in one market after another, Intel and Microsoft have emerged as the computer industry’s most fearsome pair of competitors. The numbers on Wall Street tell a stunning story. Ten years ago, the market value of the stock of Intel and Microsoft combined amounted to about a tenth of IBM’s. Last week, with IBM’s stock at an 11 year low, Microsoft’s value surpassed its old mentor’s for the first time even ($26.76 billion to $26.48 billion), and Intel ($24.3 billion) is not far behind. While IBM is posting losses, Intel’s profits jumped 30% and Microsoft’s rose 44%.
Both Intel, the world’s largest supplier of computer chips, and Microsoft, the world’s largest supplier of computer software, have assumed the role long played by Big Blue as the industry’s pacesetter. What is taking place is a generational shift unprecedented in the information age – one that recalls transition in the U.S. auto industry 70 years ago, when Alfred Sloan’s upstart General Motors surpassed Ford Motors as America’s No. 1 car maker. The transition also reflects the decline of computer manufacturers such as IBM, Wang and Unisys, and the rise of companies like Microsoft, Intel and AT & T that create the chips and software to make the computers work. Just like Dr. Frankenstein, IBM created these two monster competitors, says Richard Shaffer, publisher of the Computer Letter. Now, even IBM is in danger of being trampled by the creations it unleashed.
Although Intel and Microsoft still have close relationships with Big Blue, there is little love lost between IBM and its potent progeny. IBM had an ugly falling-out with former partner Microsoft over the future of personal-computer software. Microsoft developed the now famous disk operating system for the IBM-PC called DOS–and later created the operating software for the next generation of IBM personal computers, the Personal System/2. When PS/2 and its operating system, OS/3, failed to catch on, a feud erupted over how the two companies would upgrade the system. Although they publicly patched things up, the partnership was tattered. IBM developed its own version of OS/3, which has so far failed to capture the industry’s imagination, Microsoft’s competing version, dubbed New Technology, or NT, will debut in a few moths and will incorporate Microsoft’s highly successful Windows program, which lets users juggle several programs at once. Windows NT however, will offer more new features, such as the ability to link many computers together in a network and to safeguard them against unauthorized use.
IBM and Intel have also been parting company. After relying almost exclusively on the Santa Clara California company for the silicon chips that serve as computer brains, IBM has moved to reduce its dependence on Intel by turning to competing vendors. In Europe, IBM began selling a low-cost line of PCs called Ambra, which runs on chips made by Intel rival Advanced Micro Devices. IBM also demonstrated a sample PC using a chip made by another Intel enemy, Cyrix. And last October, IBM said it would begin selling the company’s own chips to outsiders, in direct competition with Intel.
IBM clearly feels threatened. And the wounded giant still poses the biggest threat to any future dominance by Intel and Microsoft. Last year, it teamed up with both companies’ most bitter rivals–Apple Computers and Motorola–to develop advanced software and microprocessors for a new generation of desktop computers. In selecting Apple and Motorola, IBM bypassed its longtime partners. Just as Microsoft’s standard operations system runs only on computers built around Intel’s computer chips, Apple’s software runs only on Motorola’s chips. Although IBM has pledged that the new system will eventually run on a variety of machines, it will initially run only computer programs written for Apple’s Macintosh or IBM’s OS/2. Its competitive juices now flowing, IBM last week announced that it and Apple Computer will deliver the operating system in 1994–a year ahead of schedule.    

Q1. As a result of greater competition in the US Computer industry:
(a) Some computer companies are expanding while others are contracting.
(b) Employment in the industry is going down.
(c) The industry is becoming more monopolized.
(d) The share value of IBM is going up relative to that of Intel and Microsoft.
(e) General Motors broke away from Ford Motors.

Q2. Why is something that happened 70 years ago in the US auto industry being mentioned here?
(a) General Motors broke away from Ford Motors.
(b) A new company went ahead of an established market leader.
(c) Like Dr. Frankenstein, Ford Motor created a monster in General Motors.
(d) Microsoft, Intel and AT & T were originally created by IBM.
(e) Consumers gain because of competition among producers.

Q3. Who is mentioned as the principal supplier or silicon chips to IBM?
(a) AT & T
(b) Microsoft
(c) Cyrix
(d) Intel
(e) HCL

Q4. The personal computer called Ambra is marketed by :
(a) Cyrix
(b) IBM
(c) Intel
(d) Microsoft
(e) Infosys

Q5. What was the original reason for the feud between IBM and Microsoft?
(a) The two companies developed competing softwares.
(b) Microsoft and Intel teamed up against IBM.
(c) IBM began to purchase microchips from Intel instead of Microsoft.
(d) IBM made losses while Microsoft made profits.
(e) Employment in the industry is going down.

Q6. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) IBM plants to introduce a new system that will run on a variety of machines.
(b) IBM’s new generation desk top computers will run only on Motorola’s chips.
(c) IBM is working out a joint strategy with Apple to force Motorola to supply chips at a lower price.
(d) IBM is going to sell its own chips to Apple and Motorola.
(e) The share value of IBM is going up relative to that of Intel and Microsoft.

Q7. Many computers would be linked together through a network in a system developed by:
(a) IBM
(b) Apple
(c) Microsoft
(d) HCL
(e) None of the above

Q8. One possible conclusion from the passage is that:
(a) Share prices are not a good indicator of a company’s performance.
(b) Firing workers restore a company’s health.
(c) All companies ultimately regret being a Dr. Frankenstein to some other company.
(d) Consumers gain because of competition among producers.
(e) Employment in the industry is going down.

Directions (9-15): In the following questions, word/phrase is given followed by five alternatives. Select the alternative that conveys the same waning as the word/phrase given.


Q9. Devoid
(a) implied but not clearly expressed; unquestioning
(b) lacking in; not possessing
(c) sharp or harsh in language or temper
(d) positive in expressing an opinion; asserting an opinion as though it were an undisputed fact
(e) having lot of money

Q10. Aggrieve
(a) reasoning in which from certain and known relations or resemblance others are formed
(b) a vehicle fitted for conveying the sick and wounded
(c) to give grief or sorrow to
(d) a volatile, inflammable, colourless liquid of a penetrating odour and burning taste
(e) aggregate

Q11. Cringe
(a) self-satisfied
(b) to shrink in fear
(c) prejudiced
(d) habitually fond of associating in a company or herd
(e) to stop worrying

Q12. Acrimonious
(a) sharp or harsh in language or temper
(b) of low morals; corrupt
(c) to make a mistake or to do something wrong
(d) one who denies that God exists
(e) one who defies gravity

Q13. Craven
(a) implied but not clearly expressed; unquestioning
(b) of low morals; corrupt
(c) coward
(d) rudely abrupt
(e) surreptitious 

Q14. Abrupt
(a) designed to excite love.
(b) beginning, ending, or changing suddenly or with a break.
(c) the branch of pneumatics that treats of the equilibrium, pressure, and mechanical properties.
(d) to move faster.
(e) to steer clear of

Q15. Ablution
(a) a manually skilled worker
(b) dry; barren
(c) ash-coloured; deadly pale
(d) washing
(e) revolution

Solutions
S1. Ans.(a) 
Sol. Some computer companies are expanding while others are contracting.

S2. Ans.(b) 
Sol. A new company went ahead of an established market leader.

S3. Ans.(d) 
Sol. Intel

S4. Ans.(b) 
Sol. IBM

S5. Ans.(a) 
Sol. The two companies developed competing softwares.

S6. Ans.(a) 
Sol. IBM plants to introduce a new system that will run on a variety of machines.

S7. Ans.(c) 
Sol. Microsoft

S8. Ans.(c) 
Sol. All companies ultimately regret being a Dr. Frankenstein to some other company.

S9. Ans.(b) 
Sol. Devoid -entirely lacking or free from.

S10. Ans.(c) 
Sol.  Aggrieve -feeling resentment at having been unfairly treated.

S11. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  Cringe -bend one's head and body in fear or apprehension or in a servile manner.

S12. Ans.(a) 
Sol.  Acrimonious - (typically of speech or discussion) angry and bitter.

S13. Ans.(c) 
Sol.  Craven -contemptibly lacking in courage; cowardly.

S14. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  Abrupt -sudden and unexpected.


S15. Ans.(d) 
Sol.  Ablution -an act of washing oneself.






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