English Quiz For IBPS Exam 2016

Directions
(1-4): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After reading
passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions
following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.


A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that
is unique to the capitalist system – that racial prejudice is generated by
capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works relatively well
when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his
definition of racial prejudice as “radically-based negative prejudgments
against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic
competition,” can be interpreted as also including hostility towards such
ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe.
However, since prejudice against these latter peoples was not inspired by
capitalists, he has no reason that such antagonisms were not really based on
race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced
by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early twentieth-century
discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently,
was instigated by workers.

Q1. The passage
supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(a) What
accounts for the prejudice against the Jews in medieval Europe?
(b) What
conditions caused in discrimination against Oriental people in California in
the early twentieth-century?
(c) Which
groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
(d) What
explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial
prejudice?
(e) who
could have supplied the information.
Q2. The
author considers the Marxist sociologist’s thesis about the origins of racial
prejudice to be:
(a)
Unoriginal
(b)
Unpersuasive
(c)
Offensive
(d) Obscure
(e)
aboriginal
Q3. In can
be inferred from the passage that the Marxist sociologist would argue that in a
noncapitalist society racial prejudice would be:
(a) Pervasive
(b)
Tolerated
(c)
Nonexistent
(d)
Forbidden
(e) impunity
Q4.
According to the passage, the Marxist sociologist’s chain of reasoning him to
assert that prejudice toward Oriental people in California was
(a)
non-racial in character.
(b) similar
in origin to prejudice against the Jews.
(c)
understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.
(d) provoked
by workers.
(e)
estimated by workers
Directions
(5-10): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After
reading passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions
following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.
By 1950, the
results of attempts relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather
discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed,
excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells
remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the
manifold dimensions of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had
been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain,
taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of
nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and
analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It
was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among
neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its
conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to
influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.
 Although qualitative variance among nerve
energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in
favour of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially
homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the
nervous system. According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve
impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but
rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is
some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was
applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human
subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that
particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the auditory cortex, and so
on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number,
arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho
neural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory
fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute
differences.
However,
cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies
showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or
touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise
through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some
kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the
difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, brain
theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of
relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous
impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions
of mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless variation
in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses.
Q5. The
author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with
brain processes would probably have been viewed with:
(a)
Indignation
(b)
Impatience
(c)
Pessimism
(d) Defiance
(e) definite
Q6. The
author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the
(a) lack of
differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.
(b)
similarities of the sensations that all human beings experience.
(c)
similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous
system.
(d)
continuous passage of nerve impulses through nervous system.
(e) Which
groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
Q7. The
description of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to
different sensory field of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that
(a) the
stimuli presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity
of mental experience.
(b)
variation in spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with
variation in subjective experience.
(c) nerve
impulse are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they
travel through the nervous system.
(d) the
mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the
cortical area activated.
(e) manner
in which nerve impulse are conducted.
Q8.
According to the passage, some evidences exist that the area of the cortex
activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?
I. The
nature of the nerve impulse.
II. The
modality of the sensory experience.
III.
Qualitative differences within a modality.
(a) II only
(b) III only
(c) I and II
only
(d) II and
III only
(e) none of
these.
Q9. The
passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical
views of the
(a) anatomy
of the brain.
(b)
physiological correlates of mental experience.
(c) manner
in which nerve impulse are conducted.
(d)
mechanics of sense perception.
(e) similar
in origin to prejudice against the Jews.
                                                                                                                                      Q10. Which
of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that
different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve
impulses?
(a) It is a
plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
(b) It is
the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
(c) It is
disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are psychologically
very similar.
(d) There is
some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental
experience.
(e) understood
by Oriental people as ethnic competition.

Directions (11-15): Improve the bold part in each of the following sentences,
if needed.

Q11. We have abundant natural resources and all the manpower we need.

(a) those we
need
(b) that
needs
(c) we
needed
(d) which is
in our need
(e) No
correction required
Q12. India
is so poor that it can’t afford lose
Mondays on account of strikes.
(a) can’t be
affording lose
(b) could
not afford for lose
(c) can’t
afford to lose
(d) could
afford to lost
(e) No
correction required
Q13. The
leader repeatedly mentioned that his mission was not by merely to achieve freedom.
(a) to more
achieving
(b) merely
to achieve
(c) for
merely to achieve
(d) in order
for achieving
(e) No
correction required
Q14. The
advocate declared in the court that his client has prepared to surrender.
(a) was
prepared to
(b) has been
preparing to
(c) was
prepared at
(d) has
prepared for
(e) No
corrections required
Q15. The
purchase made by him brought with him
a number of prizes.
(a) brings
towards him
(b) brought
him
(c) brought
up to him
(d) brought
with himself
(e) No
correction required
Solutions
S1. Ans.(d) 
Sol. What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of
racial prejudice?

S2. Ans.(b) 
Sol. Unpersuasive- is correct word.

S3. Ans.(c) 
Sol. Nonexistent- is correct word.

S4. Ans.(d) 
Sol. provoked by workers.

S5. Ans.(c) 
Sol. Pessimism- is correct word.

S6. Ans.(a) 
Sol. lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.


S7. Ans.(d) 
Sol. the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined
by the cortical area activated.

S8. Ans.(a) 
Sol. The modality of the sensory experience.

S9. Ans.(b) 
Sol. physiological correlates of mental experience.

S10. Ans.(d) 
Sol.  There is some evidence to support
it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.

S11. Ans.(e) 
Sol.  No correction required. The given
sentence is grammatically correct.

S12. Ans.(c) 
Sol.  Write ‘afford to lose’.

S13. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  Write ‘merely to achieve’.

S14. Ans.(a) 
Sol.  Write ‘was prepared to’.

S15. Ans.(b) 
Sol.  Write ‘brought him’