Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them, while answering some of the questions.
Enterprises in the throes of discovery have an aura of magic around them. In the world of software this becomes many-splendored with a certain joie de vivre, quite distinct from what obtains elsewhere: a sense of wonderment, surprise and eventual delight; a coming within reach of power and profits; possibly through a little tweak in technology with a touch of novelty, opening up vistas that had always seemed so near yet so far. In professional management terms, this waving of the wizard’s wand, as it were, is nothing more than an effective recovery of strategy from a technological paradigm. This book is about exploring the journey from rules and norms to solutions, specific solutions prized out of the armored covers of sector-specific industrial structures and often resources determined mindsets that Indian software’ firms seems to have mastered. Originality is the fountainhead of such a strategy. It then progresses into the realms of the economics of innovation to give itself a solid foundation from where it becomes possible to retrieve a new language of strategy and of innovation. In this high- natural yet dynamic world, the profit motive, backed by ingenuity, lend support to many of the arguments that evolve in this flow of events. The Indian software experience is a unique demonstration of how this process – the coalescing of the economics of surprise and novelty and the economics of knowledge works. This forms the basics of the strategy theory.
There are several grand theories of even grander traditions: the industrial organization approach, including several kinds of structure-conduct performance assertions and game theoretic models, evolutionary theories and corresponding case’ studies, resource-based approaches or several intermediate variants of competency based ideas that provide us with a rich yet incomplete landscape. This landscape is perhaps oblivious of certain traditions provided by theory; the rich repertoire bequeathed by Marshall and Shackle is a case in point, as they are immensely rewarding. Each important traditions or theory has made global assertions and has proved to be prescriptive or normative. Some authors have looked back at Marshall and a handful at Shackle. Fewer still reconsidered certain rich -traditions of thinking on strategy. This book does not attempt to issue prescriptive or normative guidelines purely because, the global canvass is too large and often beyond the capacity of intelligent comprehension. A strategist acts on a local scale following what Simon has generally observed. Pragmatism emerges as an important guide-and achieving the surprise element is above all, the key to definitive strategy. While this strategy evolves from governance, it also influences governance at every stage. Handicapped by a paucity of resources, the strategist must dovetail the two to increase immensely the scope of governance not only over what the incumbent possesses, but also over a much larger group of firms not under its direct control. This need not necessarily be explained by another grand theory, with globally prescriptive assertions or powers of predictions. Surprise must stand beyond predictability. ‘It must govern to earn windfall profit. Strategy thus cannot be prescribed; it would comprise piecemeal engineering. This is what this book explains.
Q1. The locale of the phrase “acting on a local scale” as used in the passage above refers to:
(a) Cognitively delimited space
(b) Geographically delimited space
(c) Temporally delimited space
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) None of the above
Q2. The idea of a ‘magic’ as used in the passage refers to:
(a) Irrationality and blind belief
(b) A sense of wonder at imagination unbridled by any governance whatsoever
(c) A sense of wonder at the discovery of a grand theory
(d) Both (b) and (c)
(e) None of the above
Q3. According to the author, the several extant strands of strategy literature such as the Industrial Organization approach provide an incomplete landscape because:
(a) They fail to take account of contributions of Marshall and Shackle
(b) It is normative in nature
(c) The vastly rich and unfolding reality is beyond the capacity of human comprehension
(d) It acts on a local scale.
(e) None of the above.
Q4. Which of the following follows from the passage?
(a) Indian software firms have excelled in providing specific solutions
(b) Indian software firms have been remarkable technology innovators
(c) Indian software firms have benefited from low priced manpower, with adequate programming skills
(d) Indian software firms have failed in providing innovative solutions.
(e) None of the above
Q5. From the passage which would be an adequate characterization of the author?
Q6. From its usage in the passage which is the most appropriate meaning of the word ‘wizard’?
(b) A person of wisdom
(c) A well known personality
(d) A person who has magical powers.
(e) None of the above
Directions (7-8): Choose the word or group of words which is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (9-10): Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (11-15): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (e). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any)
Q11. The government is planning to (a)/ sanction grants to pharmaceutical companies (b)/ for inventing new treatments for (c)/ diseases about malaria and tuberculosis. (d)/ No error (e)
Q12. The Finance Minister’s view (a)/ is that the scheme will ensure (b)/ that millions of farmers will be (c)/ lifted out of poverty. (d)/ No error (e)
Q13. A representative of the (a)/ Reserve bank will provide students an (b) / insight into the (c) / economic future of our country. (d)/ No error (e)
Q14. As one of the leader (a)/ insurance companies in (b)/ India they offer (c)/ comprehensive financial services. (d)/ No error (e)
Q15. The players (a)/ whom we have selected (b)/ for our team (c)/ are young and ambitious. (d)/ No Error (e)
S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph of the passage, “This book does not attempt to issue prescriptive or normative guidelines purely because, the global canvass is too large and often beyond the capacity of intelligent comprehension. A strategist acts on a local scale following what Simon has generally observed.” Hence option (b) is correct.
S2. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer ‘wonderment’, ‘delight’, ‘novelty’, etc. in the second sentence of the first paragraph of the passage. Hence none of the given options is correct in the context of the passage.
S3. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph of the passage, “This book does not attempt to issue prescriptive or normative guidelines purely because, the global canvass is too large and often beyond the capacity of intelligent comprehension.” Hence option (c) is correct.
S4. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the first paragraph of the passage, “This book is about exploring the journey from rules and norms to solutions, specific solutions prized out of the armored covers of sector-specific industrial structures and often resources determined mindsets that Indian software’ firms seems to have mastered.” Hence option (a) is correct.
S5. Ans. (b)
Sol. The author’s approach is pragmatic or practical rather than empirical i.e. based on experiment.
S6. Ans. (e)
Sol. Wizard here is associated with one possessing wonderment, surprise, splendor, etc. Conman is a cheat. Hence none of the given options is correct in the context of the passage.
S7. Ans. (e)
Sol. Ingenuity means the quality of being clever, original, and inventive. Shrewdness means the quality of having or showing good powers of judgement. Hence ‘ingenuity’ and ‘shrewdness’ are similar in meanings.
S8. Ans. (b)
Sol. Paucity means the presence of something in only small or insufficient quantities or amounts. Dearth means a scarcity or lack of something. Hence ‘paucity’ and ‘dearth’ are similar in meanings.
S9. Ans. (c)
Sol. Vista means a pleasing view. Hence ‘blindness’ is the word which is most opposite in meaning to it.
S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. Oblivious means not aware of or concerned about what is happening around one. Hence ‘conscious’ is the word which is most opposite in meaning to it.
Sol. ‘About’ should be replaced by ‘like’. e.g. We are planning to launch restaurants like KFC and Mc’ Donalds.
Sol. ‘Will be’ should be replaced by ‘are’. The first part of the clause is in future tense. So, second part needs to be in present tense.
e.g. I shall go there if I shall find time.
Sol. No error.
Sol. The expression should read out as ‘As one of the leading’ instead of ‘as one of the leader’ to make the syntax correct.
e.g. As one of the leading run scorers he will be a key in this series.
Sol. No error