Directions (1-5): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions based on the passage. Some of the words have been highlighted which will be required to answer some of the questions.
There is a fairly universal sentiment that the use of nuclear weapons is clearly contrary to morality and that its production probably so, does not go far enough. These activities are not only opposed to morality but also to law if the legal objection can be added to the moral, the argument against the use and the manufacture of these weapons will considerably be reinforced. Now the time is ripe to evaluate the responsibility of scientists who knowingly use their expertise for the construction of such weapons, which has deleterious effect on mankind.
To this must be added the fact that more than 50 percent of the skilled scientific manpower in the world is now engaged in the armaments industry. How appropriate it is that all this valuable skill should be devoted to the manufacture of weapons of death in a world of poverty is a question that must touch the scientific conscience.
A meeting of biologists on the Long-Term Worldwide Biological consequences of nuclear war added frightening dimension to those forecasts. Its report suggested that the long biological effects resulting from climatic changes may at least be as serious as the immediate ones.
Sub-freezing temperatures, low light levels, and high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation extending for many months after a large-scale nuclear war could destroy the biological support system of civilization, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. Productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems could be severely restricted for a year or more. Post war survivors would face starvation as well as freezing conditions in the dark and be exposed to near lethal doses of radiation. If, as now seems possible, the Southern Hemisphere were affected also, global disruption of the biosphere could ensue. In any event, there would be severe consequences, even in the areas not affected directly, because of the interdependence of the world economy. In either case the extinction of a large fraction of the earth’s animals, plants and microorganism seems possible. The population size of Homo sapiens conceivably could be reduced to prehistoric levels or below, and extinction of the human species itself cannot be excluded.
Q1. According to the passage, the argument against use and manufacture of nuclear weapons
(a) Does not stand the test of legality
(b) Possesses legal strength although it does not have moral standing
(c) Is acceptable only on moral grounds
(d) Becomes stronger if legal and moral considerations are combined
(e) All the given options are incorrect.
Q2. The scientists possessing expertise in manufacturing destructive weapons are
(a) Very few in number
(b) Irresponsible and incompetent
(c) More than half of the total number
(d) Engaged in the armaments industry against their desire
(e) not conscious of the repercussions of their actions.
Q3. The author of the passage seems to be of the view that
(a) Utilization of scientific skills in manufacture of weapons is appropriate.
(b) Manufacture of weapons of death would help eradication of poverty.
(c) Spending money on manufacture of weapons may be justifiable subject to the availability of funds.
(d) Utilization of valuable knowledge for manufacture of lethal weapons is inhuman.
(e) The evaluation of the scientific skills in manufacture of weapons is appropriate.
Q4. Which of the following is one of the consequences of nuclear war?
(a) Fertility of land will last for a year or more.
(b) Post-war survivors being very few will have abundant food.
(c) Lights would be cooler and more comfortable.
(d) Southern Hemisphere would remain quite safe in the post-war period.
(e) None of these.
Q5. Choose the word from the given alternatives which is most similar in the meaning of the given word in bold.
S1. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the second sentence of the passage, “These activities are not only opposed to morality ………… if the legal objection can be added to the moral, the argument against…………………. considerably be reinforced.”
S2. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the first sentence of the second paragraph of the passage, “To this must be added the fact that more than 50 percent of the skilled scientific manpower in the world is now engaged in the armaments industry.”
S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the second paragraph of the passage, “How appropriate it is that all this valuable skill should be devoted to the manufacture of weapons of death in a world of poverty is a question that must touch the scientific conscience.”
S4. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the options are incorrect. For option (d) refer the last few sentences of the last paragraph of the passage, “the Southern Hemisphere were affected also, global disruption of the biosphere could ensue. In any event, there would be severe consequences”
S5. Ans. (d)
Sol. Option (d) is the correct choice. ‘devoted’ means to give all or most of one’s time or resources to (a person or activity), while; ‘committed’ means pledge or bind (a person or an organization) to a certain course or policy. Hence, they both are similar in meaning.
Apathetic means showing or feeling no interest, enthusiasm, or concern.
Articulated means having two or more sections connected by a flexible joint.