Directions (1-5): Five statements are given below, labelled a, b, c, d and e. Among these, four statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit into the theme of the paragraph.
(a) After 63 days, it was found that parasites had re-emerged despite initial clearance.
(b) Laboratory tests showed that the parasites from DP failures contained this genetic marker of artemisinin resistance and had a decreased susceptibility to piperaquine, demonstrating that both artemisinin and piperaquine resistance contributed to treatment failures.
(c) The NIAID study compared the efficacy of DP treatment in 204 malaria-afflicted participants aged two to 65 years from three provinces in Cambodia with varying levels of artemisinin resistance.
(d) Resistance to artemisinin in parts of South-East Asia is well documented, but until now only a few studies had presented clear evidence of piperaquine resistance.
(e) Earlier studies have suggested that artemisinin resistance is caused by a mutant version of a gene called K13-propeller in P. falciparum parasites.
(a) The team also examined two non-Martian meteorites, which contained lower amounts of methane.
(b) All six samples also contained methane, which was measured by crushing the rocks and running the emerging gas through a mass spectrometer.
(c) The team now plans to expand its research by analysing additional meteorites.
(d) The meteorites contain gases in the same proportion and with the same isotopic composition as the Martian atmosphere.
(e) The researchers examined samples from six meteorites of volcanic rock that originated on Mars.
(a) In a new study, a multi-institutional team of researchers, led by scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), has offered an answer.
(b) The insights, published in a recent issue of Science, could help battery developers design rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that operate at higher voltages, an attribute that is crucial for batteries used in high-power applications such as electric cars.
(c) WHILE the cathode materials in most of today’s lithium-ion batteries operate at a maximum of 4.2 volts, the cathode material called LNMO spinel functions at up to 4.9 V.
(d) Analyses of the images revealed that the defects were stationary when the battery was at rest but moved around within the cathode material when the battery was charged to a high voltage.
(e) Why this material performs well at high voltages had remained a mystery.
(a) With the increasing move towards decentralised solar power using rooftop PV panels, DC-based appliances, such as refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines and fans, using brushless DC (BLDC) motors have begun to appear in the market.
(b) So to use them, the AC supply is converted to DC using converters, adapters or chargers, which are often built into appliances.
(c) Therefore, the use of DC-based appliances in grid-connected homes, even if they are augmented with rooftop solar power, becomes difficult because the load is AC-based.
(d) Solar power, particularly what is generated through photovoltaics (PV), produces DC power and the batteries used to store solar power also deliver only DC.
(e) However, the basic electric supply grid infrastructure continues to be AC-based.
(a) This is a quantum mechanical process.
(b) This in turn would initiate a string of chemical reactions leading to a biological function.
(c) The extent of quantumness is determined by the measure of quantum coherence in the excited electrons that is retained in the chain of chemical reactions that follow.
(d) In biological processes, it would typically be a pigment-protein complex that would absorb the photons.
(e) Biological processes such as vision, photosynthesis and animal magnetoreception require the absorption of quanta of light (photons).
Directions ( 6-10): Rearrange the following EIGHT sentences (A), (B), (C), (D),(E), (F), (G) and (H) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(G)The Nobel Prize for Economics awarded to the American economist, Richard H. Thaler,
(A)Has provided yet another opportunity for the many fans of his work to sing praises about the greatness of behavioural economics.
(C)The very smart insights offered by behavioural economists into the various quirks of human nature have decisively refuted the faulty assumptions of mainstream economics, it is said.
(D) In particular, the neoclassical idea of an ‘economic man’, or homo economicus, who acts in a perfectly rational manner and cares only about material things, has been beaten to death for the sin of offering an unrealistic picture of reality.
(E) While the assumption of perfect human beings can indeed lead to some very flawed economic conclusions, it is a stretch to argue that economists were simply unaware of the complexities of human behaviour before the dawn of behavioural economics.
(B)In fact, the simplifying assumption of a world filled with rational individuals, for all its many drawbacks,
(H)Has been able to provide a pretty good account of how the world works;
(F)Hence its widespread use.
Q6. Which of the following would be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
(a)G (b)A (c)C (d)D (e)E
Q7. Which of the following would be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement? .
(a)A (b)B (c)C (d)D (e)E
Q8. Which of the following would be the SIXTH sentence v after rearrangement?
(a)H (b)B (c)F (d)D (e)E
Q9. Which of the following would be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
(a)A (b)B (c)C (d)D (e)E
Q10. Which of the following would be the LAST (EIGTH) sentence after rearrangement?
(a)H (b)B (c)F (d)D (e)E
S1. Ans. (d)
Sol. Here after reading all the sentences, we can easily state that the paragraph is about failure of DP treatment due to decreased susceptibility to piperaquine and artemisinin in parasites. Hence sentences in the sequence of CAEB form a coherent paragraph while sentence (d) is not a part of it as it is about recording resistance to artemisinin in South- East Asia, which fails to connect with the other sentences. Hence sentence (d) is the right choice.
S2. Ans. (c)
Sol. Sentences in the sequence of EDBA form a coherent paragraph while sentence (c) is not a part of the paragraph. The sentences forming a coherent paragraph talks about the sample, containing methane, from six meteorites of volcanic rock and two non-Martian meteorites as examined by researchers while sentence (c) is about expanding the research by the team, which is not related to the other sentences. Hence option (c) is the correct choice.
S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. After going through the sentences, we infer that sentences in the sequence of CEAB form a coherent paragraph as the paragraph is all about the mystery behind functioning of LNMO cathode material at high voltage, which was solved by scientists at the University of California, San Diego. Sentence (d) talks about the study of the some images revealing the properties of the battery, which is not associated with other sentences. Hence sentence (d) is the correct choice.
S4. Ans. (b)
Sol. Sentences in the sequence of DAEC form a coherent paragraph as it talks about the trouble in the use of DC- based appliances, which are generated through solar power, in grid connected homes as the basic electric supply is AC- based. Sentence (b) is not related to other sentences as it tells about the conversion of AC supply to DC. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. Sentences in the sequence of EADB form a coherent paragraph telling about quantum mechanical process which is the absorption of photons initiating chemical reactions. Sentence (c) talks about the measure of quantum coherence, which fails to connect with other sentences. Hence sentence (c) is the correct choice.
For questions (6-10): The correct sequence is GACDEBHF