Directions (1-5): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which one sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. As the former Deputy Governor of the RBI, K.C. Chakraborty, had pointed out then, the RBI’s failure to ensure transparency in its currency distribution operations significantly aggravated the situation. _________________________________________. Indeed, as representatives of bank unions have claimed, the information asymmetry that followed meant that some banks, mostly private ones, were favoured over public sector banks in the matter of supply of adequate currency. The severe shortage of fresh currency was aggravated by the fact that the RBI failed to ensure a more equitable and fair distribution of notes.
(a)It quickly became evident that unprecedented bungling at the very highest levels was responsible for the crisis
(b)Bank customers had no way of knowing where they could access their money.
(c)At the height of the crisis, it was reduced to running a lottery for those using digital payment systems.
(d)Meanwhile, a year after the gigantic fiasco, the RBI claims it is still “scrutinising” the old notes.
(e)If the intention was to replace cash by digital modes of payment, the latter would have to assure the same level of certainty, predictability and acceptance.
Q2. The decision of the Yogi Adityanath government to introduce NCERT books in madrasas without disrupting the religious curriculum is in keeping with the spirit of Prime Minister Modi’s mission to educate and empower the Muslim youth by modernising madrasas. The Nai Manzil scheme, launched soon after PM Modi came to power, has been promoting modern education and developing scientific temperament in madrasas with the introduction of science, computers, mathematics and English. __________________________________________________
(a)The effort also includes developing multiple skills which will come in handy for Muslim students when they get into the job market.
(b)The idea is to encourage transparency and isolate the fly-by-night operators.
(c)We should not give the impression to the world that we have not moved on from the time we collectively opposed the introduction of English and abstained from learning it for decades, arguing it was the language of the infidels.
(d)The “saviours of Muslims” in the community need to stand up and be counted.
(e)The madrasas need to catch up with the national curriculum.
Q3. Has any decision-maker in the capital understood the full consequences of declaring its air a “national emergency”? Visitors — whether on business or diplomats — will think three times before visiting Delhi this winter. One has only to recall that it was estimated that when President Obama visited for the Republic Day parade in 2015 he may have lost six hours of his life by spending three days in the capital. The US Embassy imported 1,800 air purifiers for his entourage. _______________________________________________
(a)What’s more, it’s virtually a no-cost solution.
(b)Certain causes, like the burning of farm residue require a carrot and stick approach to encourage farmers to recycle crop waste rather than burn it.
(c)Beijing, which was previously the black sheep of the world’s urban air contamination, recorded 53 micrograms.
(d)Children can’t attend school or play outside, and this has made Delhi the air pollution pariah of the world.
(e)Indeed, a rule of thumb for any transport infrastructure scheme, whether in cities or outside them, should be that they can be permitted only if half the users constitute the public.
Q4. Ms. Patel was a prominent face of the British-India relationship — being awarded the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman earlier this year and often speaking publicly in support of the Indian government’s policies, such as demonetisation. But her departure is unlikely to have a major impact on things, given the broad-based nature of the engagement across departments. _________________________________________. They include Foreign and Commonwealth Office Minister Mark Field, whose efforts to encourage the BJP to join the International Democratic Union, a global alliance of centre-right parties, predated his time as minister for Asia.
(a)The fact that she was allowed to resign rather than be fired is significant too
(b)Others have suggested it represented part of a far more widely backed but behind the scenes shift in British foreign policy.
(c)It is notable that her replacement as Development Minister, Penny Mordaunt, was also a strong Leave campaigner.
(d)Meanwhile, the First Secretary of State, Damian Green, is facing a parliamentary inquiry over conduct allegations.
(e)Others within the Conservative Party have also been championing close relations with India, and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in particular.
Q5. Though India is not on the president’s Asia itinerary, the nomenclature alone—Indo-Pacific rather than Asia-Pacific—suggests that New Delhi stands rightly to play a central part in the Trump administration’s larger Asia strategy. With long-standing allies like Japan, South Korea and Australia, India offers democratic and economic ballast to deal with the rise of China’s power. _______________________________________. For the Trump team to succeed with the ambition of building a network of Asian partners which share our values, including India, the White House will need to corral its economic policies to match its strategic pursuits.
(a)Sadly, US economic policy appears disconnected from the administration’s broader strategic goal.
(b)To elevate India’s role, make it a full partner in our Asian network, and enhance Washington’s relations with New Delhi, the administration should help India gain a seat at the tables from which it is absent.
(c)Asia’s third largest economy deserves to have a seat at the table, and it will help India to be more embedded in the premier regime focused on free and open trade in Asia.
(d)At a time when China has emerged as the most powerful economic partner to virtually every country in Asia, including South Asia, we must have a stable strategic and non-contentious relationship with India.
(e)The Commerce Department’s technical discussion with India on standards marks a great step in that direction.
Directions (6): There are four sentences given in the following question. Find the sentence(s) which is/are grammatically correct and mark your answer choosing the best possible alternative among the five options given below each question. If all sentences are correct, choose (e) as your answer.
Q6. (I)Having trimmed China’s ideological sails to the winds of change, Xi Jinping has rather calculatedly deviated from Mao Zedong’s thesis that “a revolution is not a dinner party”.
(II)While the US government has formally given notice of its intention to withdraw from the PA, they are still in the UNFCCC and their withdrawal from the PA will take two years to come into force.
(III)The evolution of resistant strains is a natural phenomenon and this is accelerated by the selective pressure exerted by widespread, indiscriminate and irrational uses of antibacterial drugs.
(IV)Air purifier manufacturers are witnessing a spike in sales in the Capital and adjoining areas as consumers resort to panic buying with air pollution in Delhi-NCR breaching the critical limit, even as doctors doubt efficacy of such products.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (IV) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Only (I), (III) and (IV) are correct
(e)All are correct
Directions (7): The following question consists of a sentence which is divided into three parts which contain grammatical errors in one or more than one part of the sentence, as specified in bold in each part. If there is an error in any part of the sentence, find the correct alternatives to replace those parts from the three options given below each question to make the sentence grammatically correct. If the given sentence is grammatically correct or does not require any correction, choose (e), i.e., “No correction required” as your answer.
Q7. Air quality in Delhi-NCR is at the seasons’ worst for the last couple of days (I)/as a combined effect of smoke from stubble burning and moisture is turning the region (II)/into a “gas chamber” to gasp the people. (III)
(I)has been at the seasons’ worst
(II)turned the region
(III)leaving people gasping
(c)Both (I) and (III)
(d)All (I), (II) and (III)
(e)No correction required
Directions (8): In the question given below, there are four sentences. Choose the sentence which is grammatically incorrect as your answer. If all the given sentences are grammatically correct and do not require any correction, choose (e) i.e. “All are correct” as your answer.
(a) The essence of the problems is that microbial drugs themselves fail to discriminate between harmful bacteria and beneficial bacteria.
(b)Non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics act as growth promoters as they kill microbes in the intestine and thus help absorb feed nutrients better, resulting in weight gain.
(c)Although Article 19 of the Constitution provides to all citizens freedom of speech and expression, nothing explicitly guarantees freedom of the press and not much has changed since colonial rule.
(d)We know from contemporary experience as much as from history that crime and punishment may be associative concepts but is not necessarily in a cause and effect relationship.
(e)All are correct.
Directions (9): There are three sentences given in the following question. Find the sentence(s) which is/are grammatically correct and mark your answer choosing the best possible alternative among the five options given below each question. If all the sentences are correct, choose (e) as your answer.
Q9. (I)Logistics is the mainstay of any economy and a vital driver of economic progress as it encompasses the management of flow of goods from the place of initiation to the place of consumption.
(II)Although air is the fastest transportation mode, it continues to have a diminutive share in the transportation pie and has insufficient connectivity and lack of cargo terminals.
(III)For improving storing facilities, decreasing transportation overheads and boosting efficacy of complete logistics set-up, multimodal logistic parks should be developed and unified throughout the country with focus on last mile connectivity.
(a)Only (II) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct
Directions (10): Rearrange the following sentences to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions that follow.
Q10. If the sentence (A), “In finance, what is ‘pull to par’?” is the first sentence of the paragraph, then what is the sequence of other sentences after rearrangement?
(A)In finance, what is ‘pull to par’?
(B)If the buyer had purchased the bond at a discount, the price of the bond begins to increase towards its face value as the time left for its maturity decreases.
(C)Pull to par happens because any financial security is priced based on the potential future cash flow that it can provide its owner combined with the amount of time that the investor must wait before receiving the cash.
(D)This refers to the tendency of the price of a bond in financial markets to converge towards its face value as the bond nears its maturity.
(E)In the case of a bond bought at a premium, its price begins to decrease towards its face value as its time to maturity decreases every day.
Directions (11-15): Five statements are given below, labelled a, b, c, d and e. Among these, four statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit into the theme of the paragraph.
(a) The broad mechanism is akin to China’s own build-up of the BRI initiative.
(b) China spent over a decade building capacities independently in its areas of interest .
(c) For instance, it built a series of dual-use facilities across the Indian Ocean surrounding India which is popularly referred to as its ‘string of pearls’ strategy.
(d) All such efforts have now been consolidated under its grandiose idea of BRI.
(e) The broader attempt is to institutionalize this into a structured trilateral format, and possibly a quadrilateral one at a later stage.
(a) This seems to be a criticism that verges on curbing creative freedom.
(b)While there is far more freedom on social media than in print, there is also considerable danger for a careless cartoonist, and rightfully so.
(c)The comments and retorts, criticism both constructive and mindless, are immediate.
(d)Posting cartoons directly on social media is a different, and new kettle of fish.
(e)The followers need not necessarily be kind and appreciative. It is a free-for-all situation. No holds barred.
(a) Perhaps it is best to begin by making a distinction between toleration as an attitude of individuals and toleration as a social practice.
(b)Toleration exists in a society where it is a prized personal attribute, a virtue.
(c) Toleration is an attitude of forbearance preceded by psychological turbulence and anxiety
(d)It is increasingly felt by many that we are moving towards a fiercely conflict-ridden world in which toleration is needed badly. But what does toleration mean?
(e)But it is also present where persecution, violent confrontation or bloodshed have somehow been kept at bay.
(a) Initially wary of accommodating regional demands, primarily owing to the bitter experience of Partition,
(b) A multi-ethnic polity sharply polarised along linguistic, religious and caste lines, India is no stranger to subnationalist impulses.
(c) Telugu-speaking areas coalesced into Andhra Pradesh, Malayali-speaking areas into Kerala, Kannada-speaking areas into Karnataka, etc. in the 1950s.
(d) One only needs to flip the pages of history to realise how nationalism, by its very nature, has the idea of exclusion built into it.
(e) India’s central leadership embarked on an audacious project to reconfigure the country’s political map based on linguistic criteria:
(a)Once a transaction is entered in the blockchain, it cannot be erased or modified.
(b)Simply put, it is a digital public ledger that records every transaction.
(c)Blockchain removes the need for using a trusted third party such as a bank to make a transaction by directly connecting the customers and suppliers.
(d)Blockchain is the backbone technology on which bitcoins run.
(e) Blockchain is not a panacea, but a system of efficiency that is faster than siloed technologies like customer relationship management.
S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. The given paragraph is about the aftermath of the demonitisation. Among the given options, there is only sentence (b) that fits perfectly into the blank space. The sentence adds meaning to the paragraph and at the same time it correctly follows the first sentence of the paragraph. Other options are irrelevant in the context of the paragraph. Hence (b) is the correct choice.
S2. Ans. (a)
Sol. The given paragraph is about the decision by central and state governments to introduce NCERT books in madrasas without disrupting the religious curriculum following the Nai Manzil scheme launched to educate and empower the Muslim youth by modernizing madrasas. Among the given options, only statement (a) fits perfectly into the paragraph as it continues on the same theme as the paragraph. Other options are irrelevant in the context of the paragraph. Hence (a) is the correct choice.
S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. The given paragraph is about the poor condition of air-quality in Delhi which is getting worse. Among the given options, there is only sentence (d) which finds some connection with the paragraph and at the same time it concludes the paragraph in the best manner, adding meaning to it. Other options are not feasible enough to make the paragraph complete and conclusive. Hence (d) is the correct choice.
S4. Ans. (e)
Sol. The paragraph is about the departure of Ms. Patel and its impact on India’s ruling party. Among the given options, only sentence (e) finds an appropriate alternative to fit into the sentence perfectly. Other options are not in the context of the paragraph’s actual subject. Hence (e) is the correct choice.
S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. The given paragraph is about the US policies toward India and China. Among the given options, only sentence fits perfectly into the blank space as it follows the sentence prior to the space as well as the one following it. It brings the continuity into the meaning of the paragraph. Other options are not relevant enough to bring about a similar meaning to the paragraph. Hence (a) is the correct choice.
S6. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the given sentences are grammatically correct and hence they don’t require any correction.
S7. Ans. (d)
Sol. In the first part of the sentence, the phrase “is at the seasons’ worst” should be replaced by “has been at the seasons’ worst” as the use of “for the last couple of days” indicates that the sentence is in Present Perfect Continuous form. In the second part, the present form of the phrase “is turning the region” should be replaced by its past form “turned the region” as it is clearly mentioned that the sentence is depicting the action of the past [for the last couple of days]. In the third part of the sentence the phrase “to gasp the people” is totally irrelevant and meaningless; it should be replaced by the correct phrase “leaving people gasping” to make the sentence grammatically correct. Thus all the three parts of the sentence require corrections in their bold parts. Hence (d) is the correct choice.
S8. Ans. (d)
Sol. There is a grammatical error in the sentence (d), the singular verb “is” should be replaced by its plural form “are” as it refers to more than one subject i.e. “crime and punishment.” The other sentences are grammatically correct. Hence (d) is the correct choice.
Sol. All the given sentences are grammatically correct. Hence (e) is the correct choice.
S10. Ans. (c)
Sol. If (A) is the first sentence, the correct sequence of other sentences after rearrangement should be DCBE. As the first sentence is interrogative, the second statement should answer the same which could be found in the sentence (D). The other sentences in the sequence of (C), (B) and (E) follow one another to make a complete paragraph. Thus sentences in the sequence of ADCBE form a coherent paragraph which is about the expression and definition of the term “pull to par.” Hence (c) is the correct choice.
Sol. Option (e) is the correct choice as it is not a part of the coherent paragraph. Other statements are forming a coherent paragraph with their sequence being abcd. The hint is the word ‘trilateral’ as there isn’t any specific mention of the 3rd country. The other reason is that it doesn’t fit into the sequence and even after being a part of the same article; it is prohibited from being a part of the paragraph due to its context.
Sol. The coherent paragraph is the observation of an expert where he explained the ills of posting something directly on social media without going through the processes of editorial judgment as a vital lesson to young angry activists who have embraced cyberspace not only to vent their anger but also to galvanise people
Option (a) is the correct choice as it is not a part of the coherent paragraph as it is an opinion of the other expert and is contradictory to the theme of the coherent paragraph as according to him, Cartoons need breathing space and leeway to retain a sense of humour while delivering a political opinion and option (a) is one of the sentences which conforms to his view. Other statements are a part of the coherent paragraph with their sequence being dceb.
Option (c) is not the part of the coherent paragraph. By looking at all the sentences we can easily figure out that option (d) is the 1st sentence of the paragraph. The next can be either (c) or (a) but by looking at the options (b) and (e) we can infer that these are the statements which must come next after (a) as both the statements are mentioning the subjects which are being talked about in option (a). Option (c) feels abrupt and can’t fit into the paragraph and hence is the correct choice.
Sol. Option (d) is the correct choice for the given question. Other options make a coherent paragraph with their sequence being baec. The theme of the paragraph is the country’s political map based on linguistic criteria but option (d) is not in harmony with the theme of the passage.
Sol. Option (e) is the correct choice. The hint is the use of the word ‘panacea’ which means a solution or remedy for all difficulties or diseases. The paragraph is introducing us with the concept of blockchain but option (e) is not in agreement with the theme of paragraph and is introducing new topics. The other options make a coherent paragraph with their sequence being dbac.