Course: SBI CLERK/ IBPS RRB CLERK MAINS
Subject: Coherent paragraphs
Time: 15 Minutes
Published Date: 3rd October 2021
Directions (1-10): Each of the following questions has a paragraph followed by options which will complete it as according to correct contextual meaning. From the given options, choose the sentence that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. What happens to our brains as we age is of crucial importance not just to science but to public policy. By 2030, for example, 72 million people in the US will be over 65, double the figure in 2000 and their average life expectancy will likely have edged above 20 years. However, this demographic time-bomb would be much less threatening if the elderly were looked upon as intelligent contributors to society rather than as dependents in long-term decline.
(a) The idea that we get dumber as we grow older is just a myth, according to brain research that will encourage anyone old enough to know better.
(b) It is time we rethink what we mean by the ageing mind before our false assumptions result in decisions and policies that marginalize the old or waste precious public resources to re-mediate problems that do not exist.
(c) Many of the assumptions scientists currently make about ‘cognitive decline’ are seriously flawed and, for the most part, formally invalid.
(d) Using computer models to simulate young and old brains, Ramscar and his colleagues found they could account for the decline in test scores simply by factoring in experience.
(e) None of the above
Q2. The better behaviour resulting from smart devices is just one threat to the insurance industry. Conventional risk pools (for home or car insurance, for example) are shrinking as preventable accidents decline, leaving the slow-footed giants of the industry at risk. Business is instead moving to digital-native insurers, many of which are offering low premiums to those willing to collect and share their data. Yet the biggest winners could be tech companies rather than the firms that now dominate the industry. Insurance is increasingly reliant on the use of technology to change behaviour; firms act as helicopter parents to policyholders, warning of impending harm—slow down; reduce your sugar intake; call the plumber—the better to reduce unnecessary payouts.
(a) The growing mountain of personal data available to individuals and, crucially, to firms is giving those with the necessary processing power the ability to distinguish between low-risk and high-risk individuals.
(b) Cheap sensors and the tsunami of data they generate can improve our lives; black boxes in cars can tell us how to drive more carefully and wearable devices will nudge us toward healthier lifestyles.
(c) Yet this sort of relationship relies on trust, and the Googles and Apples of the world, on which consumers rely day-by-day and hour-by-hour, may be best placed to win this business.
(d) The uncertainty that underpins the need for insurance is now shrinking thanks to better insights into individual risks.
(e) None of the above
Q3. The expenditure of time, money and sparse judicial and prosecutorial resources is often justified by claims of a powerful deterrent message embodied in the ultimate punishment- the death penalty. But studies repeatedly suggest that there is no meaningful deterrent effect associated with the death penalty and further, any deterrent impact is no doubt greatly diluted by the amount of time that inevitably passes between the time of the conduct and the punishment. In 2010, the average time between sentencing and execution in the United States averaged nearly 15 years.
(a) A single federal death penalty case in Philadelphia was found to cost upwards of $10 million — eight times higher than the cost of trying a death eligible case where prosecutors seek only life imprisonment.
(b) The ethics of the issue aside, it is questionable whether seeking the death penalty is ever worth the time and resources that it takes to sentence someone to death.
(c) Apart from delaying justice, the death penalty diverts resources that could be used to help the victims’ families heal.
(d) A much more effective deterrent would be a sentence of life imprisonment imposed close in time to the crime.
(e) None of the above
Q4. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has come out with the dismaying prediction that the southwest monsoon this year will be below normal. If this prognosis holds true, it may mar the prospects of redeeming the rabi crop output losses through bumper harvests in the later kharif season. India’s farm sector has certainly acquired a degree of resilience when it comes to the monsoon – as reflected in the positive growth numbers in all the weak monsoon years since 2009. However, monsoon rainfall and its distribution still remain crucial.
(a) They impact supplies and prices of most farm commodities, especially coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and livestock products, as well as the rural sector demand for consumer goods.
(b) A poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation might well throw off the Reserve Bank of India’s schedule for rate cuts.
(c) Nevertheless, the first stage monsoon forecast of the IMD should normally be taken with a pinch of salt, as the weather agency’s accuracy record on this count is none too inspiring.
(d) The monsoon’s behavior this year seems to bear out the notion that climate change is affecting the Indian monsoon and altering its rainfall calendar.
(e) None of the above
Q5. The underlying cause for the uncontrolled inflation in the key consumables of the house hold is the failure of the government to do its job. Private players offer services at usurious costs to meet the demands of a growing middle class
A. Who wish to pass their life peacefully without getting engaged in much aspiration.
B. That is reeling under the pressure of rising prices but anyhow trying to make both ends meet
C. Which aspires to move up the ladder and secure a higher level of income.
D. Which is left with no alternative but to manage by reducing its expenses on essential commodities
(e) None of these
Q6. Non-residents are allowed to purchase shares or convertible debentures of an Indian company up to the extent and subject to terms and conditions set out under the FDI scheme. A person purchasing shares proposes to be collaborator or proposes to acquire the entire share holding of a new Indian company is required to obtain prior permission of the government
A. if he has a previous venture or tie-up in India through investment in shares or debentures.
B. when he wants to invest as per the policy guidelines with the intention to keep the money and transfer the same on conditional basis.
C. if he likes to establish the company for the benefit of this country without selling the shares in the international market and move forward.
D. unless he is a non-resident Indian he may not be permitted to go for direct investment in India.
(e) None of these
Q7. Canada’s reputation for financial regulation is starry. Its banks got through the crisis unscathed. According to Moody’s, a ratings agency, Royal Bank of Canada sits alongside HSBC and JPMorgan Chase in the top tier of global banks. And Canadian policymakers are old hands at pulling “macro prudential” levers of the sort
A. that would bring financial discipline all over.
B. which confirm to moral and ethical global banking system.
C. now in vogue among rich-world central banks.
D. now consistent enough among all the commercial banks as per the prevailing international norms.
(e) None of these
Q8. Rupee has lost a fifth of its value against the dollar in the past year, reflecting global woes but also a slowdown in India and a drying up of capital inflows. Its decline is widely seen in India as a bad thing.
A. stoking inflation and hurting firms with foreign-currency debt.
B. stimulating vicious cycle of unemployment and pushing economy in reverse order.
C. invoking trends of depression with declining production
D. encouraging imports in the unfavourably running Balance of Trade economy
(e) None of these
Q9. Already Emirates Airlines is being called the ‘national airline’ of India, as it operates more flights and carries more passengers to/from India than Air India, our national carrier. More than 70% of the passengers carried by Emirates Airlines, however, travel to points beyond Dubai, on Emirates’ network. Now, Abu Dhabi is also keen to emulate the success of Dubai and Emirates Airlines, and is keen to establish Abu Dhabi as another hub airport on the back of Etihad Airways,
A. and for this reason, is aggressively seeking an increase in capacity entitlements
B. but Jet might find it tough to move ahead in this turmoil of political jugglery
C. however, the threat of losing business, if no substantial improvement is made, is obvious for Air India
D. although Etihad may prove to be a good achievement but the changing sky policy, in this scenario will pull down the profits
(e) None of these
Q10. Sufferings of an injured person would include his inability to lead a full life, his incapacity to enjoy the normal amenities which he would have enjoyed but for the injuries and his ability to earn as much as he used to earn or could have earned. While computing compensation, the approach of the tribunal or a court has to be broad based and sometimes it would involve some guesswork
A. in view of the capacity of the person liable to pay the compensation
B. the basis of which should be the volume of injuries and the incapacitation, the victim suffered and other important factors
C. as there cannot be any precise formula to determine the quantum of compensation
D. depending upon the victim’s liabilities and earning capabilities that would keep his family happy
(e) None of these
Sol. This paragraph discusses the growing aging populace and need to identify how they can be contributors to the society. Choice (b) continues the line of thought about not wasting public resources based on existing assumptions about cognitive decline with age.
Choice (d) is also eliminated right away as it talks of a “decline in test scores”, the test not detailed here.
Choice (a) is incorrect as it doesn’t talk of the aged in the society, just lays down the basic premise that they are not on the path of mental decline. This would have been discussed before the paragraph we are trying to complete begins.
Choice (c) builds on the idea discussed by choice (a) and doesn’t fit as well as (b) to complete the paragraph.
Sol. The main point of this paragraph is that technology is producing some threats to the insurance industry, and that tech companies could be the biggest winners in this.
Starting off by mentioning the threats, the author has declared that “yet the biggest winners could be tech companies” and, in justifying why so, he talks of how insurance is using technology to change behaviour to reduce payouts.
Consider option A. This talks of how data available to individuals and firms is helping them assess risk better. It doesn’t carry forward the thought about helicopter parenting from the penultimate line of the paragraph.
Option B talks of how smart devices are helping improve lives and lifestyles. This substantiates the threat of “better behaviour resulting from smart devices” that the author refers to while starting the paragraph. It doesn’t conclude the paragraph.
Option D is ruled out as it talks of reducing uncertainty due to better insights into risks. This is the basic premise on which this paragraph is based, but does not conclude the given paragraph.
Option C talks of “this sort of relationship” and why the tech companies are better placed to win business based on trust. This provides the reasoning for why the author thinks tech companies are the biggest winners, so this is the correct concluding line.
Sol. This paragraph argues that resources spent-time, money and judiciary resources- are justified on the basis that the death penalty is a deterrent and questions whether it is indeed an effective deterrent. The author argues that it isn’t, and says that any deterrent impacts are diluted by the inordinate amount of time between the sentencing and execution. The penultimate line talks of the 15 year gap between sentencing and execution.
We see that option A talks of the cost of handling a death penalty case. This is irrelevant to the main idea of this paragraph- the deterrent effect of death penalty. So, this option is ruled out.
Option B again talks of the time and resources involved. As seen before, this paragraph starts by asking whether the resources spent have a deterrent effect. Option B is, therefore, ruled out.
Option C starts a new idea altogether, i.e, how the resources used for the death penalty cases could be better utilized. Again, this is not a conclusion for the given paragraph.
Option D is talks of a “much more effective deterrent”. This is the correct concluding line for the paragraph, as it ties in with the main idea of the paragraph of a punishment that is a “powerful deterrent”.
Sol. This paragraph starts with the prediction of a poor monsoon and goes on to discuss the impact of this on India’s farm sector. The penultimate line states that monsoon rainfall and its distribution are still crucial. Crucial to whom, is the question. The paragraph discusses India’s farm sector so we are discussing how the monsoon is still crucial to the farm sector.
Now let us consider the options given.
Option A- This discusses the impact “they” have on supplies and prices of most farm commodities and rural demand for consumer goods. The penultimate line talks of monsoon rainfall and its distribution. “They” could refer to these two factors. Hence option A seems to be a good conclusion to the given paragraph.
Option B- This discusses the effect of the poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation on RBI rate cuts. This statement introduces a new, related idea, i.e, the indirect impact of the monsoon on inflation and rate cuts. This cannot be the line that completes the given paragraph, which is discussing the monsoon and India’s farm sector.
Option C- This talks of the accuracy of IMD’s forecasts. It looks like a possible contender to complete the paragraph, as the paragraph started with the prediction of a bad monsoon. However, this statement refers to the “first stage monsoon forecast”, while there is no indication in the given paragraph whether the forecast discussed is the first stage one or the second stage forecast. Furthermore, the paragraph has focused on the impact of a poor monsoon on the farm sector. The given statement does not continue that line of thought.
Option D- This option talks of the climate change and the possibility of that affecting the Indian monsoon. This is a completely different idea and can hence be ruled out as the right choice.
Sol. the para is macro based i.e. it is based on overall increasing inflation and aspiration of middle class which would like to improve the standard of living by securing a higher income by putting in more hard work. So only option C. is correct.
Sol. Explanation – the tone of the paragraph clarifies and sets out all the terms, Option A goes to conclude the paragraph. Other options despite being close are not appropriate.
Sol. Now in vogue among rich –world central banks refer to Royal Bank of Canada. Other options do not either refer to paragraph or end it with meaningful conclusion.
Sol. Losing rupee in terms of foreign currency will surely increase inflation and the firms having foreign currency loans on them shall have to pay more in terms of Rupee.
Sol. The underlying principle to place the last sentence of paragraph is that it should close the discussion in Para. Any sentence leading the paragraph to any other idea will not be correct. Hence, we must eliminate the options –B,C & D. A is the right answer
Sol. Except C all other are subjective thoughts and will require further discussion while C closes the Para.