Directions (1-8): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
India’s diversity has inspired many writers to pen their perceptions of the country’s culture. These writings paint a complex and often conflicting picture of the culture of India. India is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse countries in the world. The concept of “Indian culture” is a very complex and complicated matter. Indian citizens are divided into various ethnic, religious, caste, linguistic and regional groups, making the realities of “Indianness” extremely complicated. This is why the conception of Indian identity poses certain difficulties and presupposes a series of assumptions about what concisely the expression “Indian” means. However, despite this vast and heterogeneous composition, the creation of some sort of typical or shared Indian culture results from some inherent internal forces (such as a robust Constitution, universal adult franchise, flexible federal structure, secular educational policy, etc.) and from certain historical events (such as Indian Independence Movement, Partition, wars against Pakistan, etc.)
According to industry consultant Eugene M. Makar, for example, traditional Indian culture is defined by a relatively strict social hierarchy. He also mentions that from an early age, children are reminded of their roles and places in society. This is reinforced, Makar notes, by the way many believe gods and spirits have an integral and functional role in determining their life. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. Strict social taboos have governed many groups for thousands of years, claims Makar. In recent years, particularly in cities, some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. He writes important family relations extend as far as 1 gotra, the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. In rural areas & sometimes in urban areas as well, it is common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. The patriarch often resolves family issues.
Others have a different perception of Indian culture. According to an interview with C.K. Prahalad by Des Dearlove, author of many best selling business books, modern India is a country of very diverse cultures with many languages, religions and traditions. Children begin by coping and learning to accept and assimilate in this diversity. Prahalad – who was born in India and grew up there – claimed, in the interview, that Indians, like everyone else in the world, want to be treated as unique, as individuals, want to express themselves and seek innovation. In another report, Nancy Lockwood of Society for Human Resource Management, the world’s largest human resources association with members in 140 countries, writes that in the past two decades or so, social change in India is in dramatic contrast to the expectations from traditional Indian culture. These changes have led to Indian families giving education opportunities to girls, accepting women working outside home, pursuing a career, and opening the possibility for women to attain managerial roles in corporate India. Lockwood claims that change is slow, yet the scale of cultural change can be sensed from the fact that of India’s 397 million workers, 124 million are now women. The issues in India with women empowerment are similar to those elsewhere in the world.
Q1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the India and its Culture?
(a) India is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse countries in the world.
(b) Indian citizens are divided into various ethnic, religious, caste, linguistic and regional groups
(c) Traditional Indian culture is defined by a relatively strict social hierarchy.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) All of the Above
Q2. Which of the following statements is/are correct in context with the passage?
(I) Out of India’s 397 million workers, 124 million are now women.
(II) Modern India is a country of very diverse cultures with many languages, religions and traditions.
(III) In rural areas & sometimes in urban areas as well, it is common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof.
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (III)
(c) Both (I) and (II)
(d) All of the Above
(e) None of the Above
Q3. Which of the following can be the most appropriate title for the passage above?
(a) India’s Diversity
(b) Indian Independence Movement
(c) Perceptions of Indian culture
(d) India’s Religious Side
(e) Cultures and Ethics
Q4. As per the passage, how have the social changes impacted the life of women in Indian families?
(a) Women have been given education opportunities and have been allowed to work outside home.
(b) Women have been allowed to join Army and serve the nation.
(c) Women have been allowed to open health care centres for the poor population.
(d) Women have been given career opportunities to work inside their homes.
(e) All of the Above
Q5. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
Q6. Which of the following statements are incorrect in context with the passage?
(I) Nancy Lockwood states that social change in India is in dramatic contrast to the expectations from traditional Indian culture.
(II) The national language of India is Hindi however there are almost 22 official languages and 400 other languages are spoken daily in India in its various states and territories.
(III) Respect and reverence for elders is a key stone of Indian culture.
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Both (II) and (III)
(d) Both (I) and (III)
(e) None of the Above
Q7. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
Q8. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage.
Directions (9-10): Choose the word out of five which is not the synonym of the word given in bold in each question.
Sol. All statements can be inferred from paragraph 1 and 2 of the passage.
Sol. All the statements are true and correct.
For Statement (I), refer the last three lines of the passage.
For Statement (II), refer last paragraph first 3 lines.
For Statement (III), refer second paragraph.
Sol. The most appropriate title for the passage above is “Perceptions of Indian culture “.
Sol. Refer the last paragraph following lines “, social change in India is in dramatic contrast to the expectations from traditional Indian culture. These changes have led to Indian families giving education opportunities to girls, accepting women working outside home, pursuing a career, and opening the possibility for women to attain managerial roles in corporate India.”
Sol. Seek: attempt to find (something).
Dragnet: a systematic search for someone or something, especially criminals or criminal activity.
Shun: persistently avoid, ignore, or reject (someone or something) through antipathy or caution.
Retreat: an act of moving back or withdrawing.
Rebuke: express sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of their behaviour or actions.
Sol. Both statements (II) and (III) are incorrect here. Nothing about Hindi language has been given in the passage. Statement (I) is correct, refer last paragraph.
Sol. Assimilate: take in and understand fully (information or ideas).
Intuit: understand or work out by instinct.
Contrast: compare in such a way as to emphasize differences.
Misconstrue: interpret (a person’s words or actions) wrongly.
Obscure: not discovered or known about; uncertain.
Misperceive: perceive wrongly or incorrectly.
Sol. Integral: necessary to make a whole complete; essential or fundamental.
Dispensable: able to be replaced or done without; superfluous.
Requisite: made necessary by particular circumstances or regulations.
Hardwired: genetically determined or compelled.
Inbred: existing from birth.
Vital: absolutely necessary; essential.
Sol. Meaning: vain and empty boasting
Sol. Meaning: tell or spread rumors