This section can be easy as pie if your basics are clear. Sometimes, even those who can communicate very well in English, fail to perform to the best of their ability in the banking exams. So, instead of boiling the ocean, try building up a strong vocabulary, an effective knowledge of grammar, and efficient comprehension skills so as to be on the ball to face this particular section. Here is a quiz being provided by Adda247 to let you practice the best of latest pattern English Questions.
Directions (1-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
Ocean currents are the vertical or horizontal movement of both surface and deep water throughout the world’s oceans. Currents normally move in a specific direction and aid significantly in the circulation of the Earth’s moisture, the resultant weather, and water pollution.
Oceanic currents are found all over the globe and vary in size, importance, and strength. Some of the more prominent currents include the California and Humboldt Currents in the Pacific, the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current in the Atlantic, and the Indian Monsoon Current in the Indian Ocean. These are just a sampling of the seventeen major surface currents found in the world’s oceans.
In addition to their varying size and strength, ocean currents differ in type. They can be either surface or deep water.
Surface currents are those found in the upper 400 meters (1,300 feet) of the ocean and make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean. Surface currents are mostly caused by the wind because it creates friction as it moves over the water. This friction then forces the water to move in a spiral pattern, creating gyres. In the northern hemisphere, gyres move clockwise and in the southern they spin counterclockwise. The speed of surface currents is the greatest closer to the ocean’s surface and decreases at about 100 meters (328 ft) below the surface.
Because surface currents travel over long distances, the Coriolis force also plays a role in their movement and deflects them, further aiding in the creation of their circular pattern. Finally, gravity plays a role in the movement of surface currents because the top of the ocean is uneven. Mounds in the water form in areas where the water meets land, where water is warmer, or where two currents converge. Gravity then pushes this water downslope on the mounds and creates currents.
Deep water currents, also called thermohaline circulation, are found below 400 meters and makeup about 90% of the ocean. Like surface currents, gravity plays a role in the creation of deep water currents but these are mainly caused by density differences in the water.
Density differences are a function of temperature and salinity. Warm water holds less salt than cold water so it is less dense and rises toward the surface while cold, salt-laden water sinks. As the warm water rises though, the cold water is forced to rise through up welling and fill the void left by the warm. By contrast, when the cold water rises, it too leaves a void and the rising warm water is then forced, through downwelling, to descend and fill this empty space, creating thermohaline circulation.
Thermohaline circulation is known as the Global Conveyor Belt because its circulation of warm and cold water acts as a submarine river and moves water throughout the ocean.
Finally, seafloor topography and the shape of the ocean’s basins impact both surface and deep water currents as they restrict areas where water can move and “funnel” it into another.
Because ocean currents circulate water worldwide, they have a significant impact on the movement of energy and moisture between the oceans and the atmosphere. As a result, they are important to the world’s weather. The Gulf Stream, for example, is a warm current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and moves north toward Europe. Since it is full of warm water, the sea surface temperatures are warm, which keeps places like Europe warmer than other areas at similar latitudes.
The Humboldt Current is another example of a current that affects weather. When this cold current is normally present off the coast of Chile and Peru, it creates extremely productive waters and keeps the coast cool and northern Chile arid. However, when it becomes disrupted, Chile’s climate is altered and it is believed that El Nino plays a role in its disturbance.
Like the movement of energy and moisture, debris can also get trapped and moved around the world via currents. This can be man-made which is significant to the formation of trash islands or natural such as iceberg. The Labrador Current, which flows south out of the Arctic Ocean along the coasts of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, is famous for moving icebergs into shipping lanes in the North Atlantic.
Currents plan an important role in navigation as well. In addition to being able to avoid trash and icebergs, knowledge of currents is essential to the reduction of shipping costs and fuel consumption. Today, shipping companies and even sailing races often use currents to reduce time spent at sea.
Finally, ocean currents are important to the distribution of the world’s sea life. Many species rely on currents to move them from one location to another whether it is for breeding or just simple movement over large areas.
Today, ocean currents are also gaining significance as a possible form of alternative energy. Because water is dense, it carries an enormous amount of energy that could possibly be captured and converted into a usable form through the use of water turbines. Currently, this is an experimental technology being tested by the United States, Japan, China, and some European Union countries.
Whether ocean currents are used as alternative energy, to reduce shipping costs, or in their nature to state to move species and weather worldwide, they are significant to geographers, meteorologists, and other scientists because they have a tremendous impact on the globe and earth-atmosphere relations.
Q1. The ideas contained in the passage can be best summarized as:
A. (i) Ocean currents (ii) The types and causes of ocean currents (iii) The importance of Ocean currents (iv) Ocean Currents as alternative energy.
B. (i) Ocean currents (ii) Surface currents (iii) Deepwater currents (iv) Ocean currents as alternative energy.
C. (i) The types and causes of ocean currents (ii) Surface currents (iii) Deepwater currents (iv) Ocean currents as alternative energy.
D. (i) Surface currents (ii) Deepwater currents (iii) the importance of Ocean currents (iv) Ocean currents as alternative energy.
(a) A and D
(b) A only
(c) B and C
(d) B and D
(e) D only
"Did you Know? In this pack you will get All new content we launch in the next 1 months"
This is the most recommended and NRA-CET ready Pack!
Use Code 'DREAM' to avail at the best price today
This package Includes IBPS PO Study Material - Subscribe Now
About Bank Mahapack
If you are preparing for more than 1 Banking & Insurance exams then this is the pack we recommend you buy.
It is most cost-effective and you get access to 100% digital content for Bank & Insurance exams on Adda247.
Banking & Insurance Exams Covered in this Pack
Additionally, you can crack any private bank job exam with content in this pack.
Bank & Insurance Mahapack Highlights
Structured course content
Recorded classes available if you miss any live class
Previous Years’ Papers of all upcoming exams.
Full Length Mocks based on the latest pattern with detailed solutions (video solutions for certain topics)
Topic level knowledge tests
Strategy sessions, time management & Preparation tips from the experts
Q2. It can be inferred from the passage that the direction of the movement of the gyres in the two hemispheres is opposite to each other because….
(a) the direction of the wind is in the opposite direction.
(b) the earth rotates on its axis.
(c) the earth is spherical in shape.
(d) the temperature of the oceans in the two hemispheres is different.
(e) the salinity of the oceans in the two hemispheres is different.
Q3. According to the passage, which of the following factors affect/s the movement of the surface currents?
A. Deflection due to the force of the earth’s rotation.
B. The temperature of the water.
C. Convergence of currents.
D. Friction of wind over water.
(a) A and D
(b) C and D
(c) B, C and D
(d) A, C and D
(e) All of the above
Q4. According to the passage, which of the following is/are NOT TRUE about the deep water currents?
A. They hold less salt than surface currents.
B. These deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at regions where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase.
C. They move water around the world.
D. Topography and shape of the land restrict their movement.
(a) A only
(b) A and D
(c) B only
(d) A, B, and D
(e) C only
Q5. Which of the following can be inferred about the Humboldt Current?
(a) It is caused by “up welling.”
(b) It is caused by “down welling.”
(c) It is important to the world’s weather.
(d) It keeps the South America cool.
(e) It keeps the South America warm.
Q6. “When this cold current is normally present off the coast of Chile and Peru, it creates extremely productive waters and keeps the coast cool and northern Chile arid.” In the context of the passage, the word productive corresponds to which of the following definitions?
(a) Having the power of producing; generative; creative.
(b) Producing readily or abundantly; fertile.
(c) Causing; bringing about.
(d) Producing or tending to produce goods and services having exchange value.
(e) Of or pertaining to the language skills of speaking and writing.
Q7. According to the passage, the ocean currents do which of the following?
A. They circulate marine life and weather across the globe.
B. They circulate water worldwide.
C. They circulate water pollution.
D. They help the shipping industry.
(a) A and B
(b) A, B, and C
(c) B, C, and D
(d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
Q8. Thermohaline circulations are found how many meters below?
Q9. Why thermohaline circulation is known as the Global Conveyor Belt?
(a)Many species rely on currents to move them from one location to another
(b)Whether ocean currents are used as alternative energy, to reduce shipping costs, or in their natural to state to move species and weather worldwide
(c)Currents normally move in a specific direction and aid significantly in the circulation of the Earth’s moisture, the resultant weather, and water pollution.
(d)because its circulation of warm and cold water acts as a submarine river and moves water throughout the ocean.
(e)gravity plays a role in the creation of deep water currents but these are mainly caused by density differences in the water.
Q10. According to the passage, Which of the following sentence given below is false?
(a). The speed of surface currents is the greatest closer to the ocean’s surface and decreases at about 100 meters (328 ft) below the surface.
(b)Surface currents found in the upper 400 meters (1,300 feet) of the ocean.
(c)In the northern hemisphere, gyres move clockwise and in the southern they spin counterclockwise
(d)Surface currents make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean.
(e) Gulf Stream is a cold current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and moves north toward Europe
Q11. Which of the following is most nearly similar in meaning of the word prominent as used in the passage?
Q12. Which of the following is most nearly similar in meaning of the word gyres as used in the passage?
Q13.Which of the following is most Opposite in meaning of the word mounds as used in the passage?
Q14. Which of the following is most Opposite in meaning of the word welling as used in the passage?
Q15. Which of the following is most Opposite in meaning of the word tremendous as used in the passage?