English Quizzes For IBPS Clerk Prelims 2021: 28th October_00.1
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English Quizzes For IBPS Clerk Prelims 2021: 28th October

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Paragraph 1: India’s ambitious Smart Cities program focuses on the need for the computer systems enabling smart cities to have an open-source system infrastructure in order to make them efficient in collaborating with the various intelligent platforms that will run the smart cities via a smoothly functioning network, which will allow for cooperation among disparate civic bodies within a city. India is not alone in this ambitious initiative. Municipalities over the world have realized how valuable it can be to make their cities “smarter”. Smart City initiatives across the globe will attract technology investments of more than $81 billion in 2018, and spending is set to grow to $158 billion in 2022, according to the International Data Corp. (IDC). Singapore, Tokyo and New York City will be among the largest spenders. Serena Da Rold of IDC has been quoted as saying that intelligent transportation and data-driven public safety remain the largest investment areas, but that IDC is also finding significant pockets of spending and growth in back-office and platform-related use cases, which are less often publicized, but increasingly happening behind the scenes in cities around the world.

Paragraph 2: The opportunity to make money in installations like these does not lie in a closed, monolithic implementation, but is facilitated by an open system with the ability to easily add new services, applications and sensors. In such a model, it is not just the connections from application to application that are open. Every aspect of the enabling infrastructure is open, including its internal schema and interfaces, and the entire programming “source” code of the implementation is also made available on a royalty-free basis. People are well aware of the vulnerabilities personal devices such as smartphones, laptops, routers and other hardware have, and the firms that make them work hard to plug gaps in a never-ending catch-up game with hackers. An entire sub-industry has been spawned for companies such as Symantec Inc., which owns Norton, the antivirus and anti-malware firm. It turns out that while firms that are involved in the smart cities program stand to make more money as they roll out new sensors, each with an Internet of Things (IoT)-based connection to their own application, as well as to other related smart cities applications, the weakest link in smart cities installations may also actually lie at this sensor level.

Paragraph 3: According to Wired magazine, researchers from IBM Security worked with their counterparts from security firm Threat care to investigate sensor hubs from three different companies, Battelle, Echelon Corp. and Libelium, who sell systems to support smart cities installations. The researchers found that these sensor arrays are at great risk of being hacked. These firms’ business is to set up an interconnected array of sensors and allow municipalities to use IoT information from these sensors to solve problems of coordination between various city agencies. These sensors monitor a variety of factors, such as pollution and traffic flow, and can automatically cause action at the ground level by controlling functions such as traffic lights, street lighting and emergency alerts. The magazine cites the instance of the false alarm that went off earlier this year in Hawaii about an expected missile attack as an example of such an accident. This particular false alarm was enormously stressful, coming as it did in the wake of sabre rattling by North Korea about its ability to hit US cities with its expanded nuclear missile capabilities.

Paragraph 4: The three firms have confirmed the vulnerabilities and issued patches for all the bugs. The magazine stated that researchers have confirmed none of the bugs their “white hat” or friendly hacking efforts exposed have actually been exploited by others with mala-fide intent. That said, officials in many countries, including the US, have acknowledged that their infrastructure is vulnerable, and it isn’t just the ballot box that the bad guys are coming after. For instance, Russian hackers have long been suspected of causing widespread electricity blackouts in the Ukraine. Municipalities would do well to earmark some of those billions of dollars to focus on ongoing spending on security, much as corporations and individuals spend money on antivirus and anti-malware shields for their devices.

Q1. Apart from the back-office and platform use related cases, what are the major significant areas for IDC to invest?
(a) Infrastructure investment to boost economy
(b) Data-driven public safety
(c) Intelligent transportation
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) Both (b) and (c)

Q2. What is the weakest link mentioned in the smart city installation?
(a) A larger support system is required for their installation which requires proper management.
(b) These are less often publicized.
(c) officials in many countries, including the US, have acknowledged that their infrastructure is vulnerable
(d) Sensors are at a great risk of being hacked.
(e) All of these.

Q3. How do sensors help in the management of traffic flow?
(a) With the help of induction coil at bayonet.
(b)By causing false alarm situations.
(c) IoT are being used to acquire traffic data quickly and send it for processing.
(d) Remote sensing can help determine passengers.
(e) None of these.

Q4. A line has been quoted in bold in paragraph 2. In what reference has the entire sub- industry been spawned?
(a) The entire sub industry has been spawned as it is less publicized.
(b) With reference to the vulnerabilities personal devices such as smartphones, laptops etc. end up catching with hackers.
(c) It has not been affected by the bugs.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) None of these.

Q5. What is meant by the idiom “white hat”?
(a) Expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards but does not have the malicious intent.
(b) A person who breaks into a computer system with the purpose of inflicting damage or stealing data.
(c) A person who hacks ethically into a computer network in order to test or evaluate its security systems.
(d) Both (a) and (c).
(e) Both (b) and (c).

Q6. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Disparate

(a) Realistic
(b) Akin
(c) Homologous
(d) incongruous
(e) Connate

Q7. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Monolithic

(a) Erratic
(b) Immutable
(c) Mercurial
(d) Capricious
(e) Intermittent

Q8. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Spawned

(a) Disappeared
(b) Consummated
(c) Suppressed
(d) engender
(e) Halted

Q9. Choose the word which is the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage

Rattling

(a) Clattering
(b) Placating
(c) Chattering
(d) Jarring
(e) Clinking

Q10. Choose the word which is the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage

Vulnerable

(a) Impuissant
(b) Unshielded
(c) Unfortified
(d) Pregnable
(e) indomitable

Directions (11-15): In each of the question given below a/an idiom/phrase is given in bold which is then followed by five options which then try to decipher its meaning as used in the sentence. Choose the option which gives the meaning of the phrase most appropriately in context of the given sentence.

Q11. After his debacle, his career is on the skids.
(a) subservience
(b) destroyed
(c) panned
(d) glib
(e) garbled

Q12. Managing to clear the cutoff was a shot in the arm for him and he started studying with more intensity.
(a) accent
(b) gist
(c) boost
(d) bulge
(e) brim

Q13. He set his father’s advice at naught and suffered a great deal afterwards.
(a) limit
(b) abuse
(c) defy
(d) appreciate
(e) adore

Q14. Investors also took heart from signs that the company has started performing well.
(a) emboldened
(b) mediocre
(c) navigable
(d) dwindle
(e) revitalize

Q15. John’s too young to take on a job like this, he’s still wet behind the ears.
(a) impair
(b) naive
(c) taper
(d) slump
(e) expatiate

Solutions

S1. Ans.(e)
Sol. Option (e) is the appropriate choice here. The answer can be referred from paragraph 1 where it is given that intelligent transportation and data-driven public safety remain the largest investment areas, but that IDC is also finding significant pockets of spending and growth in back-office and platform-related use cases, which are less often publicized, but increasingly happening behind the scenes in cities around the world.

S2. Ans.(d)
Sol. The correct choice here is option (d).For the answer ,both the paragraph 2 and 3 have to be referred. As paragraph 2 states about the how the weakest link in smart cities installations may lie at this sensor level. The level is mentioned in paragraph 3 which is the researchers found that these sensor arrays are at great risk of being hacked.

S3. Ans.(c)
Sol. Option (c) is the correct choice. The answer can be deduced from paragraph 2 where it is mentioned that smart cities program stand to make more money as they roll out new sensors, each with an Internet of Things (IoT)-based connection to their own application, as well as to other related smart cities applications .IoT is the network of physical devices embedded with electronics, software, actuators, sensors and connectivity which enables these devices to connect and exchange data and signals.

S4. Ans.(b)
Sol. The most suitable choice here is option (b).This line is quoted in bold in paragraph 2 which states that people are well aware of the vulnerabilities personal devices such as smartphones, laptops, routers and other hardware have, and the firms that make them work hard to plug gaps in a never-ending catch-up game with hackers.

S5. Ans.(c)
Sol. Only option (c) stands out as the suitable choice for the answer. The answer has to be deduced and concluded from paragraph 4 based on the author’s statement that the vulnerabilities exposed to the bugs have been confirmed by the researchers that none of the bugs their “white hat” or friendly hacking efforts exposed have actually been exploited by others with mala-fide intent. This means that white hat are the friendly hacking efforts which are not exposed by mala fide intent.

S6. Ans.(d)
Sol. Disparate means dissimilar. incongruous means the same.
Akin means similar.
Homologous means having the same relation, relative position, or structure.
Connate means united so as to form a single part.

S7. Ans.(b)
Sol. Monolithic means unchanging. Immutable means unchangeable.
Erratic means inconsistent.
Mercurial means subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind.
Capricious means given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behavior.
Intermittent means occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or steady.

S8. Ans.(d)
Sol. Spawned means to produce.
Engender-to give existence to
Hence engender is the appropriate option.
Consummated means concluded.

S9. Ans.(b)
Sol. Rattling means making or causing to make a rapid succession of short, sharp knocking.
sounds.
Placating means soothing.
Clattering means a continuous rattling sound as of hard objects falling or striking each other.
Chattering means making a series of short, quick high-pitched sounds.
Jarring means causing a physical shock, jolt, or vibration.

S10. Ans.(e)
Sol. Vulnerable means unprotected. Its opposite is Invincible which means invulnerable or indestructible.
Impuissant means unable to take effective action; powerless.
Unfortified means not fortified against attack.
Pregnable means vulnerable to attack.
Indomitable- incapable of being subdued

S11. Ans. (b)
Sol. The correct word that deciphers the meaning of the phrase “on the skids” is “destroyed” as ‘on the skids’ means certain to fail/destroy. Hence, the word ‘destroyed’ provides the intended meaning to the sentence without altering the context of the sentence. Hence, option (b) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Subservience means willingness to obey others unquestioningly.
Panned- criticized severely.
Glib- fluent but insincere and shallow

S12. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct word that deciphers the meaning of the phrase “shot in the arm” is “boost” as ‘shot in the arm’ means to encourage. Hence, the word ‘boost’ provides the intended meaning to the sentence without altering the context of the sentence. Hence, option(c) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Accent means a special or particular emphasis.
Gist means the substance or general meaning of a speech or text.
Bulge means a rounded swelling which distorts an otherwise flat surface.
Brim means be full to the point of overflowing.

S13. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct word that deciphers the meaning of the phrase “set at naught” is “defy” as ‘set at naught’ means to disregard. Hence, the word ‘defy’ provides the intended meaning to the sentence without altering the context of the sentence. Hence, option(c) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Adore means love and respect (someone) deeply.

S14. Ans. (e)
Sol. The correct word that deciphers the meaning of the phrase “take heart” is “revitalize” as ‘take heart’ means to feel encouraged. Hence, the word ‘revitalized’ provides the intended meaning to the sentence without altering the context of the sentence. Hence, option (e) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Revitalized-re-energize
Navigable means (of a website) easy to move around in.
Dwindle means diminish gradually in size, amount, or strength.
Mediocre- of only average quality; not very good.

S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. The correct word that deciphers the meaning of the phrase “wet behind the ears” is “naive” as ‘wet behind the ears’ means inexperienced. Hence, the word ‘naive’ provides the intended meaning to the sentence without altering the context of the sentence. Hence, option (b) becomes the most suitable answer choice.
Impair means weaken or damage (something, especially a faculty or function).
Taper means diminish or reduce in thickness towards one end.
Expatiate means speak or write in detail about.
Slump means sit
, lean, or fall heavily and limply.

English Quizzes For IBPS Clerk Prelims 2021: 28th October_50.1

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