Directions (1-3): In the question given below the parts of the sentence which are highlighted are grammatically correct. Choose that part of the sentence which is not highlighted and is grammatically incorrect. Ensure that the meaning of the statement remains unchanged.
Q1. In proposing to ask the judicial and administrative authorities to accord legal sanction to regulated betting on sports event etc, the Law Commission has exposed the politically-correct but morally-hypocritical stance taken by those in power but out of touch with prevailing reality.
(a) In proposing to ask the judicial and administrative authorities
(b) to regulated betting on sports event etc
(c) the politically-correct but morally-hypocritical stance
(d) taken by those in power but out of touch with prevailing reality
(e) No error
Q2. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, financial-sector executives may not have been held fully to account for their actions, but the outcry surely contributed to the “shareholder spring” that began in 2012, with investors rejecting executive pay packages and paid more attention to corporate governance issues.
(a) financial-sector executives may not have been held fully
(b) to account for their actions, but the outcry surely contributed
(c) to the “shareholder spring” that began in 2012
(d) and paid more attention to corporate governance issues
(e) No error
Q3. Alien life in the universe may be much more common than thought, say scientists analysed the oldest known fossil microorganisms which indicate that life on Earth began as far back as 3.5 million years ago.
(a) Alien life in the universe may be
(b) say scientists analysed
(c) the oldest known fossil microorganisms
(d) which indicate that life on Earth began
(e) No error
Directions (4-6): Rearrange the following sentences to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions that follow.
Q4. (A) The nature of threats is such that they continue to evolve all the time.
(B) Both the 2001 terror attack in New York and the November 2008 attack in Mumbai were one of a kind with few parallels at the time.
(C) Anticipating an attack of this nature remains in the area of an “intelligence gap” rather than an “intelligence failure”.
(D) The real problem is that when dealing with terrorism and terror networks, no two situations in the actual world are identical.
(E) Most experts explain an intelligence gap as one denoting an absence of intelligence output while an intelligence failure is one where, based on available evidence, no warning was issued.
(F) Even while the IS has gained a great deal of prominence due to its brand of violence, other terror networks have continued to be no less active.
If the sentence (D), “The real problem is that when dealing with terrorism and terror networks, no two situations in the actual world are identical.” is the first sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following sentences does not fit into the paragraph formed after rearranging other sentences?
(B) The attacks aren’t limited to mobile phones and e-Pads.
(C) While Windows operating systems were the most vulnerable to cyberattacks, a number of Android threats have been reported in the last couple of years, including potent crypto-ransomware attacks on Android devices.
(D) In 2016, the first known Ransomware, named KeRanger, targeting Mac users was also reported.
(E) All devices, including televisions that use Android, are also potentially vulnerable.
(F) The Mirai botnet malware affected 2.5 million home router users and other Internet of Things devices.
If the sentence (C), “While Windows operating systems were the most vulnerable to cyberattacks, a number of Android threats have been reported in the last couple of years, including potent crypto-ransomware attacks on Android devices.” is the first sentence of the paragraph, then what is the sequence of other sentences after rearrangement?
Q6. (A) Funding varies with the political climate: there will be money to buy equipment but no certainty that resources will flow for all the years needed to ensure significant results.
(B) But, Mr. Bhattacharjee says, “Working with hands is not encouraged among scientists. The words used in Indian labs are: one needs hands to do experiments, not brains.”
(C) To succeed, experiments require at least two conditions: guarantees of long-term funding and scientists’ collaboration with each other.
(D) Lab assistants are the hands, while scientists avoid what they regard as mere manual labour.
(E) Experimental science “is very poor in India”.
(F) And collaboration is a social process, not an intellectual one.
(G) It involves, among other things, physical labour together with others.
If the sentence (F), “And collaboration is a social process, not an intellectual one.” is the fourth sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following options indicates the follow-up sentence i.e the FIFTH sentence of the coherent paragraph so formed?
Directions (7-8): In questions given below there are two statements, each statement consists of two blanks. You have to choose the option which provides the correct set of words that fits both the blanks in both the statements appropriately and in the same order making them meaningful and grammatically correct.
Q7. (1) However ____________ and dictatorial Mr. Mugabe’s regime had been, a coup will remain a coup irrespective of what the plotters call it, raising questions of ______________ about the new government.
(2) When change in the court is made rapidly, and when attacks on the court become a bad habit of this ______________ government, the court loses _____________.
(a) inept, legitimacy
(b) inferior, inquisition
(c) consummate, licitness
(d) incompetent, Ingenuity
(e) Pertinent, lawfulness
(1) We must declare that, in our deliberate judgement, no man ought to be admitted into a participation in civil privileges with ourselves, who dares, contrary to our opinion of the __________ of such ______________, to invoke, in his closet, the intercession of saints between himself and his makers.
(2) The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout belief in the _____________ of _______________ and sacrificial offering.
(a) contemplation, citation
(b) Plausibility, incursion
(c) malaise, intercession
(d) potency, bestiality
(e) efficacy, invocation
Directions (9-10): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which one sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q9. Unchecked and unfiltered, screen-time can be dangerous for kids. It has clear health implications, in that it can affect sleep, or prevent kids from engaging in physical activity, thereby contributing to India’s rising childhood obesity rates. ________________________________. And studies have shown that young children who are screen users exhibit higher rates of aggression. Online apps and games, which are created with the specific intent to attract and hook their users, are particularly addictive for kids.
(a) It can exacerbate mental health issues, and perpetuate social isolation.
(b) Context is about how they’re engaging with what they’re watching.
(c) Devices, alone, are not going to teach our children empathy.
(d) We are lucky to live in a time when we have these tools, now we just have to learn how to use them.
(e) Technology is vital to kids’ future achievement and a necessary part of their education.
Q10. The Odiyas drew first, but the taste of defeat hangs heavy as lead on Odisha’s palate. In 2014, Jagannath scholar Asit Mohanty had submitted a 100-page report to the state government stating that the rosogolla was cited in the Odiya Ramayana of Balaram Das and had been offered to the state’s gods six centuries ago. __________________________________________________. Had they not proselytised the rosogolla the world over? They have literally weaponised it — along with guns, knives and explosives, notices in Kolkata’s airport explicitly ban rosogollas from baggage.
(a) And anyway, squabbling over rosogollas beats fighting over beef.
(b) Banglar rosogolla belongs in a mixed bag.
(c) The Bengalis, with whom the sweet is associated as closely as Chianti is with the Italians, were outraged at being accused of filching it later.
(d) Led by its chief minister, West Bengal is celebrating its equivalent of the return of the Kohinoor diamond or the Elgin Marbles.
(e) However, it is noteworthy that the GI is in the name of one state’s product.
Q11. Italian football, though, is far from dead. History shows that they recover fast. Ask Pele. By the time he played his last World Cup, in 1970, they had recovered briskly enough to reach the finals, and the Brazilian maestro and his colleagues had to be at their most destructive best to beat them. _______________________________________. As Gianluigi Buffon, who drew the curtains on his glittering 20-year-old career, said, tears rolling down his cheeks, “the next generation of Italian players can turn this catastrophe around.”
(a) It’s a storm that has been brewing for several years.
(b) In another 12 years, they won the World Cup, beating en route what is deemed to be the best Brazilian team to have never won a World Cup.
(c) But the best of Italian teams can gloss over such deficiencies with their sheer will, allied with the tactical brilliance of their coaches.
(d) Thus the utter disbelief of watching the World Cup in Russia without the Azzurri, the famed catenaccio artistes in blue, the blue-eyed alpha males who suddenly turn on their game astride the biggest stage.
(e) Back in Italy, it’s apocalypse.
Directions (12-12): There are four sentences given in the following question. Find the sentence(s) which is/are grammatically correct and mark your answer choosing the best possible alternative among the five options given below each question. If all sentences are correct, choose (e) as your answer.
Q12. (I) The GST Council, at its 23rd meeting in Guwahati last week announced major GST rate cuts by shifting 177 items—ranging from shaving creams to wristwatches—from the highest slab of 28% to the 18% slab.
(II) The government has procured 2 million tonnes of pulses by ensuring minimum support price or market rates, whichever is higher, directly from the farmers and this has been the highest ever procurement of pulses.
(III) Globally, firms across industries are cutting their spending on legacy work such as application maintenance, and ploughing the savings on newer projects into areas such as data analytics and cyber security solutions.
(IV) TCS, India’s largest software services firm, maintains that it is the company’s DNA to build technologies and groom leaders to take against senior roles, even if implementing this strategy means the company has to sacrifice some growth in the short term.
(a) Only (I) is correct
(b) Only (IV) is correct
(c) Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d) Only (I), (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct
Directions (13-13): The following question consists of a sentence which is divided into three parts which contain grammatical errors in one or more than one part of the sentence, as specified in bold in each part. If there is an error in any part of the sentence, find the correct alternatives to replace those parts from the three options given below each question to make the sentence grammatically correct. If the given sentence is grammatically correct or does not require any correction, choose (e), i.e., “No correction required” as your answer.
Q13. In the biggest revamp of the GST tax structure, the GST Council last week removed 178 items (I)/from the highest 28 per cent category while cutting the tax on all restaurants outside starred-hotels (II)/to 5 per cent but withdrawing input credit facility for them. (III)
(I)To revamp the biggest GST tax structure
(II)by cutting the tax from all restaurants
(III)facilities to them
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (III)
(c) Both (I) and (III)
(d) All (I), (II) and (III)
(e) No correction required
Q14. In the question given below, there are four sentences. Choose the sentence which is grammatically incorrect as your answer. If all the given sentences are grammatically correct and do not require any correction, choose (E) i.e. “All are correct” as your answer.
(a) Owing to the rampant change in the lifestyle of the majority of Indian populace, it is vital to understand lifestyle diseases, including and especially diabetes.
(b) The Union Cabinet on Thursday approved setting up of the anti-profiteering authority under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime to be composed of a chairman and four technical members.
(c) Less than half of Indian households has access to a proper toilet and as a consequence many people defecate in public spaces.
(d) Once a regional breadbasket, Zimbabwe saw its economy collapse after the seizure of white-owned farms in the early 2000s, followed by runaway money-printing that catapulted inflation to 500 billion percent in 2008.
(e) All are correct.
Directions (15-15): There are three sentences given in the following question. Find the sentence(s) which is/are grammatically correct and mark your answer choosing the best possible alternative among the five options given below each question. If all the sentences are correct, choose (e) as your answer.
Q15. (I) In recent months, Mr Modi’s Clean India programme to provide access to sanitation has received international attention and even praise from people like Bill Gates who has commended the fact that the Modi government has said that the problem will not exist by the year 2019.
(II) As researchers Diane Coffey and Dean Spear point out in their recently released book Where India Goes, the issue of why most Indians do not use toilets was less than a problem of the unavailability of proper toilets and more to with having social behaviour and religious beliefs.
(III)If Pakistanis want a better future for their children, if they want to ensure that so many of them do not perish because of entirely preventable illnesses, this attitude of stubborn denial will have to change.
(a) Only (II) is correct
(b) Both (I) and (III) are correct
(c) Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d) Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e) All are correct
S1. Ans. (e)
Sol. There is no error in any part of the sentence as the sentence is grammatically correct. Hence (e) is the correct choice.
S2. Ans. (d)
Sol. There is an error in the part (d) of the sentence. The verb “paid” in the expression “and paid more attention to corporate governance issues” is incorrectly matched. It should follow the same form as in the highlighted part i.e. present participle form of the verb so used “rejecting”; thus, the correct replacement of the verb “paid” should be “paying” to make the sentence grammatically correct. Hence (d) is the correct choice.
S3. Ans. (b)
Sol. There is an error in the part (b) of the sentence. There should be the inclusion of pronoun “who” that would add meaning to the sentence. The correct expression should be “say scientists who analysed”; “who” in this case refers to the scientists. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S4. Ans. (e)
Sol. If the sentence (D) is the first sentence of the paragraph, the sentences in the sequence of DABCE form a coherent paragraph which is about terrorism and the intelligence gap in anticipating such attacks. However, the sentence (A) finds no alternative to be matched with as it talks about the organization of IS and its terror networks which has no relevance from any other sentences among the given options. Hence (e) is the correct option as the sentence (F) does not belong to the paragraph so formed.
S5. Ans. (b)
Sol. If (C) is the first sentence, the correct sequence of other sentences after rearrangement should be BEDFA. The mention of “crypto-ransomware attacks” in the first sentence indicates that the following sentence should be (B) [The attacks…]. Sentences (B) and (E) make a clear connection. Similarly sentences (D) and (F) make another combination. Thus, sentences in the sequence of CBEDFA form a coherent paragraph which is about the cyber security against certain cyber threats these days. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. If (F) is the fourth sentence of the paragraph, the sentences in the sequence of ECAFGBD form a coherent paragraph which is about the experimental science and the role of collaboration in this field. There is a clear evidence that sentence (E) would be the starting sentence of the paragraph and the sentence (C) should follow (E) to form a logical chain. As the sentence (F) is the fourth sentence, it can be viewed that the sentence in the option (G) makes a connection with it. The subject “It” in this case refers to the process of “collaboration” as mentioned in the sentence (F). Thus, it should be the follow-up or fifth sentence of the paragraph. Hence (c) is the correct choice.
Inept means having or showing no skill; clumsy.
Pertinent means relevant or applicable to a particular matter; apposite.
Legitimacy means ability to be defended with logic or justification; validity.
Inquisition means a period of prolonged and intensive questioning.
Consummate means showing great skill and flair.
Efficacy means the ability to produce a desired or intended result.
Invocation means the action of invoking someone or something.
Bestiality means savagely cruel or depraved behavior.
Malaise means a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or unease whose exact cause is difficult to identify.
S9. Ans. (a)
Sol. The given paragraph is about the impact of excess use of screen or technology on kids these days. Read the paragraph carefully, it can be easily viewed that among the given options, only the sentence (a) forms the correct substitution to the provided blank space. Other options do not go with the theme of the paragraph. They alter the meaning of the paragraph. Hence (a) is the correct choice.
S10. Ans. (c)
Sol. Read the paragraph carefully, it is about the most famous sweet of West Bengal “rosogolla” and the conflicting scene related to it. Among the given options, only sentence (c) fits perfectly into the blank space as it follows the sentence prior to the space as well as the one following it. It brings the continuity into the meaning of the paragraph. Other options are not relevant enough to bring about a similar meaning to the paragraph. Hence (c) is the correct choice.
S11. Ans. (b)
Sol. The given paragraph is about Italy’s poor show in the game of football and its failure to qualify for Football World Cup. There is an indication in the sentence prior to the blank space that talks about the history of Brazilian football team of 1970s. It clearly states that among the given options, only sentence (b) fits perfectly into the space provided as it follows the other sentences in a proper order to bring out an appropriate meaning to the paragraph. Other options are irrelevant to this particular paragraph. Hence (b) is the correct choice.
S12. Ans. (d)
Sol. All the sentences, except (IV), are grammatically correct. In the case of sentence (IV), the phrasal verb “take against” should be replaced by “take up” to bring out a meaningful sentence. The phrasal verb “take against” means begin to dislike (someone), often for no strong or obvious reason, which is irrelevant in the context of the meaning of the sentence. The phrasal verb “take up” means accept an offer or challenge, which adds meaning to the sentence. Thus except (IV), all other sentences are grammatically correct. Hence option (d) is the correct choice.
S13. Ans. (e)
Sol. The sentence is grammatically correct which means that all the three bold parts in the sentence do not require any replacement or correction. Hence option (e) is the correct choice.
S14. Ans. (c)
Sol. There is a grammatical error in the sentence (c), the singular verb “has” should be replaced by its plural “have” as the subject it signifies is in plural form [Less than half of Indian households]. The other sentences are grammatically correct. Hence option (c) is the correct choice.
S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. There is an error in the sentence structure of sentence (II), the later part of the sentence “was less than a problem of the unavailability of proper toilets and more to with having social behaviour and religious beliefs” should be replaced by “is less a problem of the unavailability of proper toilets and more to do with social behaviour and religious beliefs” to make the sentence both logically and contextually correct. Moreover, it is to be noted that the sentence is in Present Tense, so the use of the verb “was” is incorrect. The correct structure of the sentence should be – “As researchers Diane Coffey and Dean Spear point out in their recently released book Where India Goes, the issue of why most Indians do not use toilets is less a problem of the unavailability of proper toilets and more to do with social behaviour and religious beliefs.”, which is both grammatically and meaningfully correct. The other two sentences are grammatically correct and do not require any correction. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.