Number System For Bank Exams – Notes, Tips – Tricks And Questions

A number system is defined as a systematic way of expressing numbers. The number system is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set by using a set of digits or symbols in a logical manner. Number System helps to understand the basics of quantitative ability.

The value of any specific digit in a number can be determined by

  • The actual digit
  • Its position in the number
  • The base of the number system

Classification of Numbers:

The number system is classified into following types:

Natural Numbers:

Numbers which are used for counting objects are known as Natural numbers. The natural numbers are denoted by N.

N = {1, 2, 3, 4…………}

Whole Numbers:

Whole numbers are the set of numbers in which zero is included in addition to natural numbers. The whole numbers are denoted by W.

W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4…….}


Integers include all natural numbers in addition to zero & negative numbers. Integers are denoted by I or Z.

I = {-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3…..}

Rational Numbers:

Rational numbers are expressed in the form of p/q where ‘p’ & ‘q’ are integers and q≠0. They are denoted by Q.

Q = 5/6, 7/8 etc.

Irrational Numbers:

The numbers which cannot be expressed in the form of p/q where ‘p’ & ‘q’ are integers and q≠0. They are denoted by Q.

Example - π = 3.141592653589793238….

Prime Numbers:

A prime number is a natural number which is divisible only by 1 and itself. It is greater than 0.

Example - 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 31, etc.

Composite Numbers:

All the numbers (except 1) which do not fall under the category of prime numbers are known as composite numbers.

Example - 4, 8, 10, 22, 100 etc.

Co-Prime Numbers:

Co-Prime Numbers are the set of integers which have only 1 as their common factor or the highest common factor (HCF) is 1.

Example – 13 & 14 are co-prime.

Even Numbers:

The numbers which are divisible by 2 are known as even numbers.

Example – 2, 4, 6, 8, 10….

Odd Numbers:

The numbers which are not divisible by 2 are known as odd numbers.

Example – 3, 5, 7, 9……

Tricks to remember while solving number system questions:

  • 1 is neither divisible nor prime.
  • Two consecutive odd prime numbers are known as prime pair.
  • All natural numbers are whole, integer, rational and real.
  • All whole numbers are rational, Integer and real.
  • All rational numbers incorporates integers, since every integer can be written as a fraction with denominator 1. Example (9/1).
  • The square of an even is even and the square of an odd number is odd.
  • Any given Prime Number can never be a Composite Number.
  • Fractions are rational.
  • Zero is neither negative nor positive number.
  • If x is any number then, if x divides zero, result will be zero. If 0 divides x, then result will be infinite or not defined or undetermined i.e. 0/x =0, but x/0 =∞ (infinite) where x is real number.
  • The sum and the product of two rational number is always a rational numbers.
  • The product or the sum of a rational number and irrational number is always an irrational number.


Q1: Is 881 a Prime Number?

Ans: The approximate square root of 881 is 30. Prime numbers less than 30 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29 etc.

Q2: Which of the following are Co-Prime Number?

1) (2,8)

2) (4,5)

3) (9,12)

4) (12,15)

5) None of these

Answer: Option 2, only positive integer (factor) that divides both of them is 1.

Q3: Which number is neither Prime nor Composite?

1) 11
2) 40
3) 18
4) 1
5) None of these
Answer: Option 4. 1 is neither prime nor composite.

Q4: Consider the following statement: All Prime numbers are Odd.
1) True
2) False
3) True except 2
4) False except 2
5) None of the above

Answer: Option 3.

Q5: Which number is Rational but not Integer?

1) 7
2) 0
3) 8
4) 2.5
5) Pie (π)

Answer: Option 4.

Number System: Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: What is Number System?

Answer: Number System is the basic topic of mathematics. Number System helps to understand the basics of quantitative ability.

Q2: In which exams questions related number system are asked?

Answer: Questions related to number system are asked in quantitative aptitude section of all competitive exams like IBPS, SSC, Railways, CSAT etc.

Q3: How many questions are asked from number system?

Answer: On an average, 1-2 questions are asked from number system.

Q4: How can I solve Number System questions?

Answer: Practice is the key. Go through the concepts mentioned above & start solving questions.
Number System Shortcuts & Tricks For Bank Exams?

Free Daily Number System Quiz


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