Directions (1-7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
“After a 500-metre hike uphill, we arrived at an open grassland and it was like hitting a jackpot. A rabble of colourful butterflies fluttered all around us and it was a sight to behold,” recalls Pavendhan Appu of Tamil Nadu Butterfly Society, about the recent butterfly walk that he undertook along with five other members in the Devadhanapatti range of Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary. “In just about half-a-day, we recorded nearly 85 species, including some rare varieties, and that was by far the highest in the shortest time among all places in the State. We were happily surprised at the concentration, numbers and diversity of butterflies in the small pocket.”
The forests of Devadhanapatti in Theni are known for the famous Kumbakarai falls and a wide range of trees and plants. With the discovery of a rich butterfly population in the pocket, environmentalists are thinking of setting up a natural butterfly park in the area. Based on State-wide surveys in the past few years, the society has marked a couple of places as hotspots. These include Kallar and Siruvani in Coimbatore besides Srivilliputhur, Rajapalayam and Courtallam.
“The area located on the south-western slopes of the Palani hills has a composite vegetation, including medicinal herbs, variety of shrubs, tall trees and open grassy patches. There’s also a perennial stream that runs by which makes it ideal for butterflies. We have done three repeat exploratory studies here, and the total number of butterfly species identified stands at 131. We expect the numbers to cross 200,” says K Sravan Kumar, a member.
One of the main reasons for a thriving butterfly population is very less human intrusion and thus no deforestation, observes Pavendhan. “Thankfully, the pocket is traversed only by a few tribals and is not a bustling tourist spot like Kodaikanal. That has ensured an undisturbed habitat for the winged wonders. We saw swarms of butterflies mud-puddling along the stream, some sun-bathing on the pebble-laden path and others hovering over colourful wild flowers, including varieties of jasmine. During the season, we heard that the entire stretch is full of blossoms. The place is like a real fantasy world.”
Patches of open grasslands atop the hills are home to over 15 species, including the Browns varieties of butterflies, that are dependent on grass beds. “The Browns and Rings are also the dominant species in the area,” says Pavendhan, who initiated a State-wide butterfly census three years ago. “In States like Kerala, naturalists have come out with a checklist of rare, migrant and common species found there. Likewise, our idea was to develop an extensive study material on butterflies of Tamil Nadu. That’s how we started with volunteers in 23 districts and the first list had 271 species. Now, we have covered the plains, delta and both Eastern and Western Ghats, and have people contributing from all the districts. The overall number of species found across the State stands at 324.”
Q1. What is the reason cited for the flourishing butterfly population in the Palani Hills?
Q2. Which of the following can be the most appropriate title for the passage above?
"Flutter tales from the Palani hills " as the passage is about butterflies in the region of Palani Hills.
Q3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect in context with the passage?
Option (a) and Option (b) Refer paragraph 2.
Q4. Which of the following has been used by the author to refer to the Butterflies in the passage above?
Sol. Only statement (III) is correct. Refer the last line of the passage. Both statements (I) and (II) have not been talked about here and are incorrect.
Q5. Which of the following statements is/are true in context with the passage above?
(I) The caterpillars build “distinctive white, silken webbing nests on the trunks and branches of oak trees” in the early summer and also leave “white silken trails,” according to forestry officials.
(II) Caterpillars of the oak processionary moth were spotted emerging from eggs in mid-April, according to the Forestry Commission.
(III) The overall number of species found across the state is 324.
Q6. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
Fluttering: fly unsteadily or hover by flapping the wings quickly and lightly.
Settling: sit or come to rest in a comfortable position.
Culminating: reach a climax or point of highest development.
Segregating: set apart from the rest or from each other; isolate or divide.
Q7. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage.
Dallying: act or move slowly.
Humming: be in a state of great activity.
Scurrying: (of a person or small animal) move hurriedly with short quick steps.
Hastening: be quick to do something.
Directions (8- 15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7–10 age group, by 2011. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group. Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.
As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22.9 crore students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment. While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school system. While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school (Grades 9-12). Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.
Although there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading.
Q8. As per the passage, improved education system in India contributes to which of the sectors?
Q9. What reason is cited for the poor quality of Education in India?
Q10. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true in context with the passage?
(I) The private education market in India had a revenue of US$500 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$20 billion market.
(II) The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
(III) A report from 2013 stated that there were 24.9 crore students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 43 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 99% increase in girl's enrollment.
For option (III) refer the following lines in paragraph 4 "Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22.9 crore students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment."
Q11. What is the challenge that is necessary to overcome to increase the growth of economy, especially from India’s young population?
Q12. As per the passage, why can the differentiation of government schools and private schools be considered misleading?
Q13. Which of the following statement(s) is/are not true in context with the passage?
Q14. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
Adduce: cite as evidence.
Slight: small in degree; inconsiderable.
Overlook: fail to notice.
Disregard: pay no attention to; ignore.
Surpass: exceed; be greater than.
Q15. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage.
Nondeceptive: not misleading or deceptive
Artful: clever or skilful, especially in a crafty or cunning way.
Guileful: marked by skill in deception.
Delusive: giving a false or misleading impression.
Fallacious: based on a mistaken belief.