English Language Quiz for IBPS 2020 Mains Exams- 6th December

Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words or phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Marketing executives in television work with a relatively stable advertising medium. In many ways, the television ads aired today are similar to those aired two decades ago. Most television ads still feature actors, still run 30 or 60 seconds, and still show a product. However, the differing dynamics of the Internet pose unique challenges to advertisers, forcing them to adapt their practices and techniques on a regular basis.

In the early days of Internet marketing, online advertisers employed banner and pop-up ads to attract customers. These techniques reached large audiences, generated many sales leads, and came at a low cost. However, a small number of Internet users began to consider these advertising techniques intrusive and annoying. Yet because marketing strategies relying heavily on banners and pop-ups produced results, companies invested growing amounts of money into purchasing these ad types in hopes of capturing market share in the burgeoning online economy. As consumers became more sophisticated, frustration with these online advertising techniques grew. Independent programmers began to develop tools that blocked banner and pop-up ads. The popularity of these tools exploded when the search engine Google, at the time an increasingly popular website fighting to solidify its place on the Internet with giants Microsoft and Yahoo, offered free software enabling users to block pop-up ads. The backlash against banner ads grew as new web browsers provided users the ability to block image-based ads such as banner ads. Although banner and pop-up ads still exist, they are far less prominent than during the early days of the Internet.

A major development in online marketing came with the introduction of pay-per-click ads. Unlike banner or pop-up ads, which originally required companies to pay every time a website visitor saw an ad, pay-per-click ads allowed companies to pay only when an interested potential customer clicked on an ad. More importantly, however, these ads circumvented the pop-up and banner blockers. As a result of these advantages and the incredible growth in the use of search engines, which provide excellent venues for pay-per-click advertising, companies began turning to pay-per-click marketing in droves. However, as with the banner and pop-up ads that preceded them, pay-per-click ads came with their drawbacks. When companies began pouring billions of dollars into this emerging medium, online advertising specialists started to notice the presence of what would later be called click fraud: representatives of a company with no interest in the product advertised by a competitor click on the competitor’s ads simply to increase the marketing cost of the competitor. Click fraud grew so rapidly that marketers sought to diversify their online positions away from pay-per-click marketing through new mediums.

Although pay-per-click advertising remains a common and effective advertising tool, marketers adapted yet again to the changing dynamics of the Internet by adopting new techniques such as pay-per-performance advertising, search engine optimization, and affiliate marketing. As the pace of the Internet’s evolution increases, it seems all the more likely that advertising successfully on the Internet will require a strategy that shuns constancy and embraces change.

Q1. According to the passage, which of the following best describes the current status of pop-up ads?

(a)Widely used
(b)Less popular now than at earlier times
(c)A frequent target of click fraud
(d)Non-existent due to pop-up blockers
(e)Increasingly popular due to search engines

Q2. According to the passage, which of the following best describes the practice of click fraud?

(a) Clicking on the banner advertisements of rival companies
(b)Using software to block advertisements
(c)Utilizing search engine optimization to visit the pages of competitors
(d)Fraudulently purchasing products online
(e)Clicking on the pay-per-click ads of competitors

Q3. According to the passage, the largest point at which the television and Internet differ as an advertising medium is:
(a)The type of individual each medium reaches
(b)Whether the medium is interactive
(c) The pace at which the medium evolves
(d)The cost of advertising with each medium
(e) Whether each medium contains drawbacks

Q4. Which of the following words best describes the author’s tone in the passage?
(a)Critical
(b)Analytical
(c) Frustrated
(d) Biased
(e) Surprised

Q5. The author implies what about the future of pay-per-performance advertising?

(a)Although it improves on pay-per-click advertising, it is still vulnerable to click fraud
(b) It will one day become extinct as Internet users discover drawbacks with it
(c) Internet users will develop free software to block its effectiveness
(d) It will eventually become less popular with advertisers as the Internet evolves and drawbacks emerge
(e) It will not face drawbacks due to its differing approach to online marketing

Q6. Which of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?
(a)Although pay-per-click advertising remains a wide-spread and effective online advertising medium, its popularity is likely to diminish as the Internet evolves.
(b) Internet advertising is not well received by Internet users, causing independent programmers to subvert advertisers.
(c) Unlike the television, the Internet has experienced dramatic changes in short periods of time.
(d)Unlike the television, the Internet has evolved rapidly, forcing online marketers to develop new advertising strategies and mediums.
(e)The pace of the Internet’s evolution is increasing and will only increase in the future.

Q7. The passage implies that which of the following attributes will be the most important for future success in online advertising:
(a) Flexible creativity
(b) Disciplined patience
(c) Uniform approach
(d) Ruthless tenacity
(e) Eclectic approach

Q8. Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

AFFILIATE

(a) confederate

(b) Adjourn

(c) amalgamate

(d) incorporated

(e) associated

Q9. Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

PROMINENT

(a) abstruse

(b) eminent

(c) excrescence

(d) protruding

(e) foremost

Q10. Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word/ group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

CIRCUMVENTED

(a) accede

(b) acclimate

(c) acquiesce

(d) outwit

(e) auspice

Directions (11-15): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

A. The cumulative time spent in traffic is a major economic loss.
B. A number of technologies are available to implement a congestion charging system. The
challenge is to pick one that reduces transaction costs, and is sealed against revenue leakage.
C. A charge on private vehicles in selected areas and at particular times of day would be a reasonable response to externalities they create.
D. As choosing to drive one’s own car or other vehicle into a city centre puts pressure on limited road
space, contributes to pollution and global warming, and results in reduced mobility for all.
E. This makes them robust, affordable and sustainable.
F. Congestion charging schemes therefore levy a premium for the privilege of using a personal car,
and the funds thus collected should be ploughed back exclusively into public transport options.

Q11. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
(a)A
(b) F
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q12.  Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
(a)F
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Q13. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?
(a)A
(b) B
(c) F
(d) D
(e) E

Q14.  Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
(a)B
(b) C
(c)D
(d) E
(e) F

Q15.  Which of the following should be the SIXTH (last) sentence after rearrangement?
(a)A
(b) B
(c) C
(d)D
(e) E

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Solutions

S1. Ans.(b)
Sol. Option (b) is correct
The crucial sentence in the passage is: “Although banner and pop-up ads still exist, they are far less prominent than during the early days of the Internet.”
a. There is no support for this in the passage. It is implicitly contradicted by the words “far less prominent.”
c. Pay-per-click advertising is a target of “click fraud,” not banner ads, which suffered from blocking programs.
d. The passage states that pop-ups “still exist.”
e. The passage states that pay-per-click advertising—not pop-ups—is more popular due to search engines

S2. Ans.(e)
Sol. Option (e) is correct
The pertinent sentence from the passage is: “pay-per-click ads came with their drawbacks. When companies began pouring billions of dollars into this emerging medium, online advertising specialists started to notice the presence of what would later be called “click fraud”: representatives of a company with no interest in the product a competitor advertised clicked on the competitor’s ads simply to increase the marketing cost of the competitor.”

S3. Ans.(c)
Sol. Option(c) is correct

The key sentences are at the beginning, where television and the Internet are compared: “In many ways, the television ads aired today are similar to those aired two decades ago. Most television ads still feature actors, still run 30 or 60 seconds, and still show a product.

However, the differing dynamics of the Internet pose unique challenges to advertisers, forcing them to adapt their practices and techniques on a regular basis.”

S4. Ans.(b)
Sol. Option(b) is correct
From the very beginning, the author is analyzing a situation and making a case for the rapid evolution of Internet marketing.

S5. Ans.(d)
Sol. The central theme of the passage is that the Internet is evolving rapidly and current advertising mediums will eventually be replaced (albeit not completely) by new mediums. Just after mentioning pay-per-performance advertising, the author concludes by saying “As the pace of the Internet’s evolution increases, it seems all the more likely that advertising successfully on the Internet will require a strategy that shuns constancy and embraces change.”

(a)There is no mention of click-fraud applying to pay-per-performance advertising. Since click-fraud does not apply to all online advertising methods and no description of pay-per-performance advertising is given, it is not possible to infer that click-fraud applies to pay-per-performance advertising.

(b)The passage never asserts that Internet ad strategies become “extinct.” Rather it asserts that they dwindle in popularity as Internet users adapt and the ad strategies become less effective.

(c) Developing software to block ads referred to the problem with pop-up and banner advertisements. The article never implied that this problem existed with all Internet advertising strategies.

(d)Since the main point of the article is that the Internet evolves and online advertising strategies change, it is reasonable to conclude that pay-per-performance advertising will have a similar fate as the other advertising strategies mentioned in the passage: declining popularity over time.

(e) Nothing in the passage supports the idea that an online advertising strategy will remain popular indefinitely even as the Internet evolves rapidly – this contradicts the main point of the passage.

S6. Ans.(d)
Sol. This statement encapsulates the author’s point in each paragraph: the evolution of the Internet is forcing advertisers to change their strategies rapidly. The phrase “unlike the television” ties into the introductory point.

S7. Ans.(a)
Sol. The main point of the article is that the Internet evolves and, as a result, online advertisers must adapt their strategies. The implication is that future success will require this same innovation and willingness to change tactics.

S8. Ans.(b)
Sol. Affiliate means officially attach or connect (a subsidiary group or a person) to an organization hence adjourn is the word most opposite in meaning.

S9. Ans.(a)
Sol. Prominent means important; famous hence abstruse is the word most opposite in meaning.

S10. Ans.(d)
Sol.
Circumvent means find a way around (an obstacle) hence outwit is the word most similar in meaning.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct sequence to form a meaningful paragraph is CDAFEB.

S12. Ans. (d)
Sol. The correct sequence to form a meaningful paragraph is CDAFEB.

S13. Ans. (a)

Sol. The correct sequence to form a meaningful paragraph is CDAFEB.

S14. Ans. (e)
Sol. The correct sequence to form a meaningful paragraph is CDAFEB.

S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. The correct sequence to form a meaningful paragraph is CDAFEB.

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