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Agriculture and Rural Development Quizzes For NABARD Grade A 2022- 2nd September

Q1. Paras is a variety of-
(a) Ber
(b) Fig
(c) Jamun
(d) Bael
(e) Jackfruit

Q2. ___________ is a thornless species of citrus.
(a) Grape fruit
(b) Acid lime
(c) Citron
(d) Tahiti lime
(e) Pummelo

Q3. ‘Bipolaris’, a mycoherbicide is used against which weed?
(a) Sorghum halepanse
(b) Phalaris minor
(c) Opuntia
(d) Lantana
(e) Striga

Q4. What are cowper’s glands?
(a) Primary sex glands
(b) Accessory sex glands
(c) Part of thyroid glands
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) None of these

Q5. UG 99 rust is identified in which of the following crop?
(a) Barley
(b) Rice
(c) Wheat
(d) Redgram
(e) Buck wheat

Q6. Photosynthates in plants moves through _____________?
(a) Phloem
(b) Xylem
(c) Endodermis
(d) Vacuole
(e) None of these

Q7. The seed replacement rate for hybrids is-
(a) 80%
(b) 90%
(c) 85%
(d) 100%
(e) 50%

Q8. __________ crop is considered as the ‘Drosophila of the plant kingdom’.
(a) Barley
(b) Rice
(c) Wheat
(d) Potato
(e) Maize

Q9. The mode of pollination in pearl millet is?
(a) Self-pollinated
(b) Cross-pollinated
(c) Cleistogamous
(d) Auto-crossing
(e) None of these

Q10. The average duration of standing heat in cow is _____________?
(a) 9 hours
(b) 10 hours
(c) 18 hours
(d) 20 hours
(e) 22 hours


S1. Ans (c)
Sol. Jamun is indigenous to India. Its tree is tall and evergreen. Therefore It is generally grown as avenue tree or as wind break. Though the fruits are liked by all and sell at a high price, but it is still not grown as an orchard tree. Jamun is found all over India.
Varieties: The most common type grown in north India is known as Raja jamun. This is a large-fruited type having oblong fruits of deep purple colour. A type having large- sized fruits is known as Paras in Gujarat. Another type found in Varanasi has no seed. A selection with desirable traits has been located by the agricultural university at Faizabad. It has been named by them as Narendra Jamun 6.

S2. Ans (d)
Sol. Persian lime (Citrus × latifolia), also known by other common names such as seedless lime, Bearss lime and Tahiti lime, is a citrus fruit species of hybrid origin, known only in cultivation. The Persian lime is a triploid cross between key lime (Citrus × aurantiifolia) and lemon (Citrus × limon). The plants are medium sized, thornless evergreen shrubs bearing oval shaped fruits.

S3. Ans (a)
Sol. Fungal pathogens are considered to be the only group of microorganisms with potential for the classical biological control of weeds. These agents of living products control specific weeds in agriculture as effectively they could continue to survive on the weeds year after year over long periods and provide protection unlike the herbicides which are required to be applied season after season or year after year. These organisms have been known as Mycoherbicide indicates that a natural endemic pathogen might be rendered completely destructive to its weed host by applying a massive dose of inoculam at particular stage of weed growth.
A biological method of controlling johnson grass and similar weeds in agricultural crops is provided in which Bipolaris sorghicola spores are suspended in a solution of water and a surfactant and sprayed onto a field in which the johnson grass or similar weed is growing in an amount sufficient to coat the leaves of the plants to be controlled. The Bipolaris sorghicola will kill the johnson grass and similar weeds without adversely affecting most agricultural crops.

S4. Ans (b)
Sol. The bulbourethral glands or Cowper’s glands are two small exocrine glands in the reproductive system of many male mammals. They are homologous to Bartholin’s glands in females. The bulbouretheral glands are responsible for producing a pre-ejaculate fluid called Cowper’s fluid (known colloquially as pre-ejaculate or pre-cum), which is secreted during sexual arousal, neutralizing the acidity of the urethra in preparation for the passage of sperm cells.

S5. Ans (c)
Sol. Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is historically the most damaging disease of wheat. Under suitable conditions, yield losses of 70% or more are possible. In 1999, a new virulent race of stem rust was identified from wheat fields in Uganda – popularly known as Ug99 after the year and country of discovery. The unique virulence associated with Ug99, or variants, has rendered a large proportion of global wheat cultivars susceptible.

S6. Ans (a)
Sol. Photosynthates are produced in the mesophyll cells of photosynthesizing leaves. From there, they are translocated through the phloem where they are used or stored. Mesophyll cells are connected by cytoplasmic channels called plasmodesmata. Photosynthates move through plasmodesmata to reach phloem sieve-tube elements (STEs) in the vascular bundles. From the mesophyll cells, the photosynthates are loaded into the phloem STEs. The sucrose is actively transported against its concentration gradient (a process requiring ATP) into the phloem cells using the electrochemical potential of the proton gradient. This is coupled to the uptake of sucrose with a carrier protein called the sucrose-H+ symporter.

S7. Ans (d)
Sol. Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of the total area of crop planted in the season by using certified/quality seeds other than the farm saved seed. In simple terms it is a measure of cropped area covered with quality seed.
Hybrid seeds have significant advantage in terms of impact on seed replacement rate. Hybrid seed are to replaced every year to retain hybrid vigour, thereby having Seed Replacement rate to 100%.

S8. Ans (e)
Sol. Maize is a very important plant genetics model and the oldest major plant genetics model (tobacco is goes back pretty early too). That makes it similar to Drosophila. A number of major genetics breakthroughs were first made in maize. Barbara McClintock’s breakthroughs on transposons was done in maize. Like Drosophila, maize is one of the favorite models for quantitative geneticists. It is by far the leading model for heterosis.

S9. Ans (b)
Sol. Pearl millet is a highly cross-pollinated species. Wind is supposed to be the major cross pollinating agent. However, insects also effect cross pollination. Protogyny and the time lag between stigma emergence and anther dehiscence favor cross pollination, but asynchronous flowering prevents its full realization.

S10. Ans (c)
Sol. The average duration of standing heat is 15 to 18 hours, but heat duration may vary from 8 to 30 hours among cows. An estrous cow usually stands to be mounted 20 to 55 times during her oestrous period.

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