Reading Comprehension For IBPS Clerk Mains: 7th January 2019

English Language Quiz For IBPS Clerk Mains 

IBPS had conducted the IBPS Clerk Prelims Exam few weeks ago and the result will be out shortly. Now the next step is to clear the mains exam Thus, the English Language can be an impetus for their success by helping them save crucial time and score good points in lesser time and effort. So, instead of boiling the ocean, try building up a strong vocabulary, an effective knowledge of grammar, and efficient comprehension skills so as to be on the ball to face this particular section. Here is a quiz on English Language being provided by Adda247 to let you practice the best of latest pattern English Questions for IBPS Clerk Mains Exam.


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Directions (1-7): Read the following passage and answer the following questions given below. 
Some words are given in bold to help you answer some of the questions given below. 

Paragraph 1: Think about it: 1.49 billion people on average log onto Facebook daily; every second, on average, around 6,000 tweets are tweeted on Twitter; and since its inception, over 40 billion photographs have been posted on Instagram. We live in a world where we aren’t only consumers of information but creators as well, which gives us a misplaced sense of control. It is misplaced because we live today on social media in filter bubbles and echo chambers, and our experiences are dictated by algorithms. As we approach the end of the second decade of this century, social media and the Internet have drifted from their promise of closing distances and exposing us to the views of those who existed beyond our personal networks. Instead, we find ourselves to be more rigid versions of our former selves. 




Paragraph 2: In the 1950s, a series of psychological experiments called the Asch Conformity Experiments was carried out by the social psychologist Solomon Asch, to determine the extent to which a person’s opinion is influenced by a group. Asch found through a series of trials that an individual was willing to go to the extent of giving a wrong answer just to conform to the majority view. The respondents gave wrong answers either because they did not want to be ridiculed or thought of as “peculiar”, or because they believed that the group was better informed than them. Although means of communication and engagement have evolved since the 1950s, the human instinct to fit in hasn’t changed. To some extent this also explains the impact of fake news online, which is said to contribute to a polarised society. Fake news is an industry today and finds great resonance with people. Its rise corresponds with a growing distrust in the mainstream media. Fake news has now even slipped into traditional media outlets and is often circulated by prominent individuals. This has contributed to the echo chamber phenomenon. People seek “informed” opinions through filters only from people they trust and look for news that confirms their world view. This results in people cultivating rigid opinions of issues that they would have probably been more willing to discuss in the past. Social media sites are more than willing to play abettors. Twitter, for example, will routinely prompt you to follow people who hold a viewpoint that is similar to yours. Social media creates and services, needs which could be the narcissistic impulses encouraged by Instagram or the strengthening of deep-rooted biases on Twitter and Facebook. 




Paragraph 3: A study carried out by Aalto University, Finland, this year on increasing polarisation on social media found that factors like user homophily (users in a social system tend to bond more with ones who are similar to them than to ones who are dissimilar) and algorithmic filtering have created this cycle of enforcing and reinforcing belief systems and ensuring that we don’t open our minds to diverse opinions. The study suggests that algorithms must be created to identify trigger topics and find diverse opinions that might otherwise be kept out. While the democratisation of discourse that social media has brought about is undeniable and most welcome, we are getting trapped in narrower world views that are seeping into not only voter behaviour but everyday personal interactions. This is something we must be alarmed about. Log in or log out, the world is a far more opinionated place today but it need not be a rigid one. 




Q1. According to the author how social media and the Internet were supposed to help people?




It was expected that internet and social media will increase the proximity among peoples
Internet and social media were supposed to make people more rigid versions of their former selves.
They were supposed to expose us to the views of those who existed beyond our personal networks.
Both (a) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the last lines of very first paragraph where it is given as “As we approach the end of the second decade of this century, social media and the Internet have drifted from their promise of closing distances and exposing us to the views of those who existed beyond our personal networks.” Option (b) can be easily omitted as it is the stating the effect that social media and internet have made upon the people by making them more rigid version of their former selves. Hence option (d) is the correct answer choice.
Q2. Based on the information given in the passage consider a situation where four people are made to sit in a room, they are asked to answer the same question, assuming that three out of four gave the same answer what could be the reason behind the odds that the fourth one will also give the same answer?
Because the fourth one did not want to be ridiculed
As the fourth one didn’t want anyone to consider his answer as funny or strange
Because he had a thought in his mind that the other three people are much knowledgeable than him
All (a) (b) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the information given in the second paragraph where it is mentioned that “Asch found through a series of trials that an individual was willing to go to the extent of giving a wrong answer just to conform to the majority view. The respondents gave wrong answers either because they did not want to be ridiculed or thought of as “peculiar”, or because they believed that the group was better informed than them.”
Hence option (d) is the correct answer choice.
Q3. Why in a today’s world of social media we, the consumers and creators of information possess a misplaced sense of control?
The feeling of autonomy, choosing how one spends one’s time, doing one’s work in his/her own way nowadays is being influenced by the information that is being shared over social media
As people’s most of the life is being spent over social media and they don’t get any time to develop their skills and to learn new things.
It is misplaced because we live today on social media world where peoples opinion are driven by others experiences and their knowledge.
Both (a) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the information given in the first paragraph where it is mentioned that, “We live in a world where we aren’t only consumers of information but creators as well, which gives us a misplaced sense of control. It is misplaced because we live today on social media in filter bubbles and echo chambers, and our experiences are dictated by algorithms.” As mentioned in the second paragraph, “People seek “informed” opinions through filters only from people they trust and look for news that confirms their world view”, explains why social media is more an echo chamber as the sound in it keeps fading through different path after reflection from the chamber surface. Similarly any information transmitted through social media keep losing its authenticity as it transfers from one media handle to another media handle. Hence option (a) is the correct answer choice.
Q4. Out of the followings which option best explains the meaning of the line given in bold as used in the second passage, “Social media sites are more than willing to play abettors.”?
There has been serious instances of data breaches in various social media sites like Facebook, and twitter etc.
Twitter, for example, will routinely prompt you to follow people who hold a viewpoint that is similar to yours.
Social media sites are abetting people in regard to a particular political campaign
Both (a) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the information given in the last lines of the second paragraph where it is mentioned that, “Twitter, for example, will routinely prompt you to follow people who hold a viewpoint that is similar to yours. Social media creates and services needs, which could be the narcissistic impulses encouraged by Instagram or the strengthening of deep-rooted biases on Twitter and Facebook.”
Hence option (b) is the correct answer choice.
Q5. How has the Fake news industry contributed to the echo chamber phenomenon?
Fake news has now even slipped into traditional media outlets and is often circulated by prominent individuals.
This results in people cultivating rigid opinions of issues that they would have probably been more willing to discuss in the present
People seek “informed” opinions through filters only from people they don’t trust and look for news that confirms their world view.
Both (a) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the information given in the second paragraph where it is mentioned that, “Fake news has now even slipped into traditional media outlets and is often circulated by prominent individuals. This has contributed to the echo chamber phenomenon.”
Hence option (a) is the correct answer choice.
Q6. How the factors like user homophily, increasing polarisation on social media restricts our minds for diverse opinions?
An individual was willing to go to the extent of giving a wrong answer just to conform to the majority view.
By changing the means of communication and engagement since the 1950s, the human instinct to fit in hasn’t changed.
Users in a social system tend to gel up more with ones who are similar to them than to ones who are dissimilar and thus following the same path of thinking
Both (a) and (c)
None of these
Solution:
The answer to the question can be traced from the information given in the last paragraph where it is mentioned that, “A study carried out by Aalto University, Finland, this year on increasing polarisationon social media found that factors like user homophily (users in a social system tend to bond more with ones who are similar to them than to ones who are dissimilar) and algorithmic filtering have created this cycle of enforcing and reinforcing belief systems and ensuring that we don’t open our minds to diverse opinions.” Hence option (c) is the correct answer choice.
Q7. Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning with the highlighted word SEEPING as given in the passage?
Trickle
Construe
Twig
Encrypt
Postscript
Solution:
Seeping- (of a liquid) flow or leak slowly through porous material or small holes.
Encrypt- convert (information or data) into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access
Postscript- an additional remark at the end of a letter, after the signature and introduced by ‘PS’
Twig- a slender woody shoot growing from a branch or stem of a tree or shrub
Hence option (a) is the most suitable answer choice.
Directions (8-15): Read the following passage and answer the following questions given below the passage. 

Paragraph 1: Superstition is a credulous belief or notion, not based on reason, knowledge, or experience. The word is often used pejoratively to refer to folk beliefs deemed irrational. This leads to some superstitions being called "old wives' tales". It is also commonly applied to beliefs and practices surrounding luck, prophecy and spiritual beings, particularly irrational belief that future events can be influenced or foretold by specific unrelated prior events. While almost any behavior can be turned into a superstitious ritual, perhaps the ones that are most likely to survive are those that happen to be effective at changing how we feel. Although there is no single definition of superstition, it generally means a belief in supernatural forces – such as fate – the desire to influence unpredictable factors and a need to resolve uncertainty. In this way then, individual beliefs and experiences drive superstitions, which explains why they are generally irrational and often defy current scientific wisdom. 
Paragraph 2: Psychologists who have investigated what role superstitions play, have found that they derive from the assumption that a connection exists between co-occurring, non-related events. For instance , the notion that charms promote good luck, or protect you from badluck. For many people, engaging with superstitious behaviors provides a sense of control and reduces anxiety – which is why levels of superstition increase at times of stress and angst. Superstitious beliefs have been shown to help promote a positive mental attitude. Although they can lead to irrational decisions, such as trusting in the merits of good luck and destiny rather than sound decision making. 




Paragraph 3: Carrying charms, wearing certain clothes, visiting places associated with good fortune, preferring specific colors and using particular numbers are all elements of superstition. And although these behaviors and actions can appear trivial, for some people, they can often affect choices made in the real world. Superstitions can also give rise to the notion that objects and places are cursed. Such as the Annabelle the Doll – who featured in The Conjuring and two other movies – and is said to be inhabited by the spirit of a dead girl. A more traditional illustration is the Curse of the Pharaohs, which is said to be cast upon any person who disturbs the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian person – especially a pharaoh. Numbers themselves can also often be associated with curses. For example, the figure 666 in a license plate is often featured in stories of misfortune. The most famous case was the number plate “ARK 666Y”, which is believed to have caused mysterious vehicle fires and “bad vibes” for passengers. 




Paragraph 4: Where does science fit into this picture? Science is only one of the important parts of our culture. The combined knowledge through generations to generations which helped human beings to survive, prosper, and be on the top of the development is what we mean by systematic and formulated knowledge. We have to examine how science and superstitions affect our daily life and our thinking. Superstition is the irrational way of explaining usual or unusual events. Science does not believe in irrational way of explaining events. Science aims to know the cause and effect of each phenomenon based on scientific principles that can be verified with experiments and are proven on the basis of well-established scientific rules known as laws. Science has rational answers to many of the phenomena. 




Q8. Which one of the following comes closest to capturing what the term "pejoratively" means in paragraph 1?




It is used to refer to the beliefs of folks.
It is described as the desire to influence unpredictable factors but they ultimate get the certainty of the events that happen in the forthcoming future.
The author is expressing disapproval and criticism of superstition as they are adjudged irrational using this word.
Both (b) and (c)
All of these.
Solution:
Option (c) is the most appropriate choice among all the given options. This can be quoted from the first line of the first paragraph itself where it is given that the word is often used pejoratively to refer to folk beliefs deemed irrational. This leads to some superstitions being called "old wives' tales".
Pejorative in general means “expressing contempt or disapproval.”
Q9. What types of behavior are most liable to outlast when turned to superstitious rituals?
The behavior associated with rational thinking.
From the behavior impacted in real life due to the events co-occuring in dreams.
Behaviors with different conditions of life and education.
The ones which happen to be potent enough at changing the way we feel.
None of these.
Solution:
Option (d) is the most suitable answer as the choice of the answer. The answer can be deduced from the first paragraph of the passage where it is mentioned that “while almost any behavior can be turned into a superstitious ritual, perhaps the ones that are most likely to survive are those that happen to be effective at changing how we feel. Although there is no single definition of superstition, it generally means a belief in supernatural forces – such as fate – the desire to influence unpredictable factors and a need to resolve uncertainty.”
Q10. Why does the author quote that the superstitions confront the scientific wisdom?
As superstitions are a mystery that even science cannot solve.
As individual beliefs and experiences drive superstitions which make them irrational.
As every superstition is linked to an unseen energy and force influenced by some objects or human rituals.
As superstitions are not necessarily referring to something leading to a bad fate.
None of these.
Solution:
Option (b) is the most apt choice to be selected as the answer of the question. Since in the question it is asked that why does the author quotes so the answer has to be in relevance of the passage only and not out of the context of the passage. Only option (b) is mentioned in the passage. Rest all other options are not mentioned in the passage. This option can be traced from the last lines of the first paragraph of the passage where it is mentioned that “In this way then, individual beliefs and experiences drive superstitions, which explains why they are generally irrational and often defy current scientific wisdom.”
Q11. The discussion of superstition in paragraph 1 differs from that in paragraph 4 in which one of the following ways?
Superstitions can also give rise to the notion that objects and places are cursed and science proves this phenomena.
Superstitions are applied to beliefs and practices while these practices are different from our culture.
Superstition is irrational and science does not believe in irrational way of explaining events.
Both (b) and (c)
Both (a) and (b)
Solution:
Option (c) is the most appropriate choice to be selected as the answer of the question. Compare first and last paragraphs of the passage it is clearly mentioned in the first paragraph that, individual beliefs and experiences drive superstitions, which explains why they are generally irrational and often defy current scientific wisdom while in the last paragraph it is given that science explains that superstition is the irrational way of explaining usual or unusual events, hence science does not believe in irrational way of explaining events.
Q12. Why do some people prefer to use specific colors or carry talismans?
To prove the basic principles which are just as much unproved assumptions.
As they are not inclined to believe in some of the real ideas.
As science progresses, superstitions ought to grow less.
As people have the belief that they can affect the choices made in the real world.
None of these.
Solution:
Option (d) is the most suitable and relevant answer among all the choices given. Refer to the third paragraph where it is given that carrying charms, wearing certain clothes, visiting places associated with good fortune, preferring specific colors and using particular numbers are all elements of superstition. And although these behaviors and actions can appear trivial, for some people, they can often affect choices made in the real world.
Q13. What is the Curse of the Pharaohs known for?
That when some good things are ready to happen, the curse has an impact that something bad interferes.
Bring bad luck for the thieves disturbing the outrageous tomb of the Egyptians.
Casted on the person for disturbing the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian person.
That it can cause mysterious vehicle fires and bad vibes for passengers with the specific plate number.
None of these.
Solution:
Option (c) is the correct choice. The answer can be inferred from paragraph 3, where it is mentioned that “Superstitions can also give rise to the notion that objects and places are cursed. A more traditional illustration is the Curse of the Pharaohs, which is said to be cast upon any person who disturbs the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian person – especially a pharaoh.”
Q14. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Credulous
Suspicious
Gullible
Skeptical
Wary
Insightful
Solution:
Option (b) is the most suitable choice.
Credulous means having or showing too great a readiness to believe things.
Gullible means easily persuaded to believe something; credulous.
Suspicious means having or showing a cautious distrust of someone or something.
Skeptical means not easily convinced; having doubts or reservations.
Wary means feeling or showing caution about possible dangers or problems.
Insightful means having or showing an accurate and deep understanding; perceptive.
Q15. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Angst
Apprehension
Trepidation
Serenity
Distress
Perturbation
Solution:
Angst means a feeling of deep anxiety or dread, typically an unfocused one about the human condition or the state of the world in general.
Serenity means the state of being calm, peaceful, and untroubled.
Apprehension means anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen.
Trepidation means a feeling of fear or anxiety about something that may happen.
Distress means extreme anxiety, sorrow, or pain.
Perturbation means anxiety; mental uneasiness.
               





  
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