English Quizzes, for IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 10th December_00.1
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English Quizzes, for IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 10th December

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

IT is a truth that should now be universally acknowledged, that everywhere in the world our lives are driven by computers—or more specifically by the workings of information and communication technology (ICT) and, therefore, the Internet. Our dependence on them is not just temporary or partial; it is continuous and overwhelming. People who actively use computers—desktops, laptops, tablets or mobile telephones—are not the only ones whose lives are driven by them and by Internet access. Increasingly, certainly in urban areas, almost all forms of transport, most forms of financial transactions and many forms of quotidian work and interaction are reliant on the underlying operations of computer systems. As “the Internet of things” quietly becomes more and more significant, the very gadgets that people use on a regular basis function on the basis of information collected, computed and transmitted in ways that are typically not even known to or grasped by the user.

All this has created new forms of dependency and vulnerability, which we do not fully recognize. The usual concerns that many people have about this domination of “smart” machines all around us relate to privacy, monitoring and surveillance, and, of course, the ever-present possibility of cyber fraud. These are certainly valid concerns. But the implications of a simple failure of a computer system—and outage or downtime—are somehow seen as less dire, probably because most people believe that such temporary collapses can be speedily rectified and dealt with, and that most computer systems have enough backup to resolve the ensuing problems quickly and relatively smoothly, without major disruption.

However, now it seems that such a belief in the fundamental resilience (if such a word can be used) and reliability of systems based in cyberspace are not justified and could even be touchingly naive. The latest example of the fragility of these systems was the collapse of the computer system of British Airways on May 27, which led to a complete shutdown of flights for a full day followed by huge numbers of cancellations and delays and chaos and confusion for several days thereafter.

According to British Airways, the computer system broke down because of a “power failure”—but surely that raises more questions than it answers. How could an international airline as large and established as British Airways not have a system of uninterrupted power supply, which is something even private individuals seek to ensure when they are dealing with data? Surely it would have had multiple servers in different locations? What about adequate backup, including on the “cloud”, which must be the most obvious item on any computer system checklist? And was there no system in place to deal with such emergency contingencies to minimise their adverse effects?

If none of this was apparently in place for British Airways, people would be justified in feeling concerned about many other computer systems that are assumed to have adequate protection, backup and contingency planning. What about banks, for example, and credit card companies that have apparently experienced various nightmarish hacks and other cyber threats that are intentionally played down by the media to prevent panic? What about military systems, which are increasingly reliant on software and computer programmes, which we do not lose sleep over because we assume that sufficient precautions have been taken to cover all possible contingencies, even unexpected ones?

Q1. How according to the author Information and Communication Technology has revolutionized the lives of people?
(I)People have become more dependent on electronic gadgets as they find them the most significant tool to access information related to any topic.
(II)There is an upsurge in the use of technology in urban areas as almost all forms of transport, most forms of financial transactions and many forms of quotidian work and interaction are reliant on the underlying operations of computer systems.
(III)There is an active utilization of the facilities being provided through various mediums like computer, tablet, internet and other electronic equipments transmitting immense relevant data for day-to-day use.

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q2. What does author mean by new forms of dependency and vulnerability related to the domination of IT products?
(I)There is a serious concern regarding the misuse of gadgets for some illegal activities.
(II)There is a rising concern related to privacy, monitoring and surveillance of smart products of IT.
(III)The possibility of cyber-fraud is one of the biggest concerns that has kept challenging the domination of IT products.

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Only (III) is correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q3. Which of the following statements in context of the passage show(s) that the author is skeptical?
(a)Simple human errors have been responsible for sudden breakdowns of smart machines, so far with less adverse impact.
(b)There is a speedy rectification of cyber related problems as these products have the implications of quick self recovery.
(c)Any temporary collapse of computer system can be easily dealt with as they have enough backup to resolve the ensuing problems quickly and relatively smoothly, without major disruption.
(d)The reliability of systems based in cyberspace and its fundamental feature of flexibility are difficult to justify.
(e)Both (c) and (d)

Q4. What does author mean by the phrase “but surely that raises more questions than it answers”?
(I)The reason cited by the British Airways for the breakdown of computer system is difficult to digest as it raises further questions related to its
security and privacy concerns.
(II)Being such a large and established airline, the reason of power failure shows the extent of casual approach of British Airways.
(III)The reason of power failure mask the errors of the concerned authority as it raises many questions related to back up plans.

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q5. What does author mean by the statement, “Our dependence on them is not just temporary or partial; it is continuous and overwhelming” as used in the passage?
(a)People have become more reliant on technology and its ever increasing popularity and utilization has made it the most reliable source of existence in coming future.
(b)The growing dependence on IT sector shows that with this rate it is going to surpass all other existing markets in near future.
(c)There is no partial dependency on Information and Technology as people have accepted their all products gleefully without making any future compromise.
(d)The over utilization of IT products shows that our dependency on these products is not temporary rather it has become a perpetual necessity.
(e)All are true.

Q6. Which of the following set of words describe the mood and style of writing of the author respectively in writing the passage?
(a)Hopeful, Descriptive
(b)Confining, Persuasive
(c)Alarming, Expository
(d)Ominous, Narrative
(e)Oppressive, Informative

Directions (7-8): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Q7. Ensue
(a)Stumble
(b)Chance
(c)Retreat
(d)Supervene
(e)Denounce

Q8. Contingency
(a)Openness
(b)Fortuity
(c)Compromise
(d)Menace
(e)Revelation

Directions (9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Q9. Quotidian
(a)Mainstream
(b)Unmemorable
(c)Unusual
(d)Colorless
(e)Uneventful

Q10. Resilience
(a)Plasticity
(b)Compliance
(c)Suppleness
(d)Tolerance
(e)Fragility

Directions (11-15): Rearrange the following sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below it.

A. Neither cinema nor the press are separately listed in the Constitution, though they are derived from Article 19 (1)A, which lists the freedom of speech and expression.
B. The issue of censorship comes up when we debate whether there should be restrictions to freedom of expression.
C. India is a very vast and complex country and the same freedom enshrined in the Constitution applies to cinema as well.
D. And the answer is that a total censorship and absolute freedom can both be problematic.
E. Citizens of the country as complex as ours have varying needs, requirements and sensibilities and one has to strike a balance.

Q11. Which of the following would be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C    
(d) D
(e) E

Q12. Which of the following would be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
(a) D
(b) C
(c) A
(d) B
(e) E

Q13. Which of the following would be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
(a) C
(b) D
(c) A
(d) E
(e) B

Q14. Which of the following would be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
(a) E
(b) D
(c) A
(d) C
(e) B

Q15. Which of the following would be the FIFTH (LAST) sentence after rearrangement?
(a) E
(b) A
(c) B
(d) D
(e) C

Solutions

S1. Ans. (e)
Sol. Read the first paragraph carefully, it can be easily inferred from there that in today’s world, Information and Communication Technology has completely changed the lives of people around the world. All three statements can be easily verified from the first paragraph. Hence (e) is the correct choice.

S2. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the second paragraph, “The usual concerns that many people have about this domination of “smart” machines all around us relate to privacy, monitoring and surveillance, and, of course, the ever-present possibility of cyber fraud.” Hence both the statements (II) and (III) are correct in context of the passage.

S3. Ans. (e)
Sol. Refer the last sentence of the second paragraph, “…most people believe that such temporary collapses can be speedily rectified and dealt with, and that most computer systems have enough backup to resolve the ensuing problems quickly and relatively smoothly, without major disruption.” and the first sentence of the third paragraph, “…now it seems that such a belief in the fundamental resilience (if such a word can be used) and reliability of systems based in cyberspace are not justified and could even be touchingly naive.” These two statements have nicely been justified with the example of power failure of British Airways. Hence both these statements show that the author is skeptical about the reliability and truth related to such issues.

S4. Ans. (b)
Sol. Read the fourth paragraph carefully, it is clearly mentioned there that the reason of power failure for the breakdown of computer system raises more questions related to its existing back up plans, security, privacy and problem solving measures. Hence in context of the passage, both the statements (I) and (III) are correct.

S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the first paragraph of the passage carefully, “IT is a truth that should now be universally acknowledged, that everywhere in the world our lives are driven by computers—or more specifically by the workings of information and communication technology (ICT) and, therefore, the Internet. Our dependence on them is not just temporary or partial; it is continuous and overwhelming.” Hence it can be inferred from the passage that only option (a) defines the hidden meaning behind statement used by the author in a better way.

S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. It can be easily understood from the passage that the author has tried to alarm against the excess use of technology and the security concerns related to the same. Moreover, the author has tried to come up with subject-oriented style of writing with an intention to explain and describe about the dependency of people on IT sector. Hence “alarming, expository” is the correct set of words which describe the mood and writing style of the author respectively.

S7. Ans. (d)
Sol. Ensue means happen or occur afterwards or as a result. Supervene means occur as an interruption or change to an existing situation. Hence both are almost similar in meanings.
Denounce means publicly declare to be wrong or evil.

S8. Ans. (b)
Sol. Contingency means a future event or circumstance which is possible but cannot be predicted with certainty. Fortuity means a chance occurrence. Hence both are similar in meanings.
Menace means a person or thing that is likely to cause harm; a threat or danger.

S9. Ans. (c)
Sol. Quotidian means ordinary or everyday; mundane. So “unusual” is the word most opposite in meaning to it.

S10. Ans. (e)
Sol. Resilience means the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness. So “fragility” is the word most opposite in meaning to it.
Compliance means the action or fact of complying with a wish or command.
Suppleness means pliant; flexible.

 For questions (11-15): The correct sequence is CABDE

S11. Ans.(b)

S12. Ans.(b)

S13. Ans.(b)

S14. Ans.(c)

S15. Ans.(a)

English Quizzes, for IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 10th December_50.1

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