English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Mains 2021 – 20th December_00.1
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English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Mains 2021 – 20th December

Directions (1- 10): Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed. There are some blanks given in the passage based on which some questions are framed, and some words are highlighted as well to help you answer some of the questions. 

SMART cities are the future of urban living, ______(A)______ the power of three Ds—digital technologies, data, and design thinking—to boost the efficiency and effectiveness of city services. (B) However, this new wave of digital transformation (1) also brings new cyber risks that could explosion (2) impact the existence of smart cities. Cyber threats have been on the rise for years, but the last few years have seen an fundamentally (3) in cyberattacks that target both data and physical (4) assets.

As connected devices ____(C)____ at a breakneck speed—the number of IoT devices is expected to rise from 8.4 billion today to almost 20 billion by 20202—cyberattacks and vulnerabilities in one area can have a cascading effect on numerous other areas. The consequences could extend beyond just data loss, financial impact, and reputational damage risks—severe enough as they are—to include ____________(D)________________ such as health care, transportation, law enforcement, power and utilities, and residential services. Such disruptions can potentially lead to loss of life and breakdown of social and economic systems.

The rapid hyperconnectivity and digitization of cities are accelerating cyber threats. (E) To tackle the challenge, government leaders, urban planners, and other key stakeholders should make cybersecurity principles an integral part of the smart city governing, design, and operations, not just an afterthought.

(F) A smart city is a complex (1) ecosystem of municipal services, public and private entities (2), people, constantly (3), devices, and city infrastructure that processes (4) interact with each other. The underlying technology infrastructure of the ecosystem comprises three layers: the edge, the core, and the communication channel. The edge layer comprises devices such as sensors, actuators, other IoT devices, and smartphones. The core is the technology platform that ____________(G)__________from the edge. The communication channel establishes a constant, two-way data exchange between the core and the edge to seamlessly integrate the various components of the ecosystem.

(H) This massive amount of data exchanges, integration between disparate IoT devices, and dynamically changing processes creates new cyber threats, compounded by complexities in the other components of the ecosystem that wrap around the technology infrastructure. For instance, data governance can be a _____(I)_______ issue for cities as they need to think about whether the data is internal or external; whether it is transactional or personalized; whether the transactional data is collected via IoT devices; and how the data is stored, archived, duplicated, and destroyed. In addition, due to a lack of common standards and policies, many cities are experimenting with new vendors and products, which create _____(J)_____ and integration problems on the ground and exacerbate cyber risks.

Q1. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as (A) in the above passage to make it grammatically correct and contextually meaningful? Also, the word should fill in the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful.

(I) He explained that Ireland has the capacity to generate huge volumes of energy by _________ off-shore wind.

(II) Alexander wants to encourage a consensus among this disparate body of men and women, _________ their talents for the good of the nation.

(a) extenuating
(b) harnessing
(c) exacerbating
(d) bumbling
(e) flushing

Q2. The sentence given in (B) has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words which of the followings must interchange to make the sentence grammatically and contextually correct and meaningful?

(a) (3)-(4)
(b) (1)-(2)
(c) (2)-(4)
(d) (2)-(3)
(e) (1)-(3)

Q3. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as (C) in the above passage to make it grammatically correct and contextually meaningful?

(a) venerate
(b) harangue
(c) upbraid
(d) proliferate
(e) verisimilitude

Q4. Which of the following phrases should fill the blank (D) to make it contextually correct and grammatically meaningful?

(a) abrogation from these sources and others for population health and care management
(b) a view to the future might help these stakeholders anticipate how technology will transform data collection
(c) reflects much deeper insights into the drivers of health and health care costs
(d) disruption of crucial city services and infrastructure across a broad range of domains
(e) None of these

Q5. In the above passage, a sentence (E) is given in Italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error, then choose option (e) as your answer.

(a) To tackle the challenge, government leaders, urban
(b) planners, and other key stakeholders should make cybersecurity
(c) principles an integral part of the smart city governing,
(d) design, and operations, not just an afterthought
(e) No error

Q6. The sentence given in (F) has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words which of the followings must interchange to make the sentence grammatically and contextually correct and meaningful?

(a) (2)-(3)
(b) (1)-(2)
(c) (3)-(4)
(d) (1)-(4)
(e) (2)-(4)

Q7. Which of the following phrases should fill the blank (G) to make it contextually and grammatically meaningful and correct respectively?

(a) have appointed technology-focused board members
(b) most people who serve on the board of public companies
(c) goes beyond the information technology bucket
(d) might happen and explaining how the team is mitigating risks
(e) processes and makes sense of the data flowing

Q8. In the above passage, a sentence (H) is given in Italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error, then choose option (e) as your answer.

(a) This massive amount of data exchanges, integration
(b) between disparate IoT devices, and dynamically changing processes
(c) creates new cyber threats, compounded by complexities in the other components
(d) of the ecosystem that wrap around the technology infrastructure.
(e) No error

Q9. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as (I) in the above passage to make it grammatically correct and contextually meaningful?

(a) lambaste
(b) dogmatic
(c) thorny
(d) reticent
(e) decorous

Q10. Which of the following words given in the options should come at the place marked as (J) in the above paragraph to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful and correct? Also, the word should fill the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful?

(I) The Company announced its support for the multi-vendor switch ___________ initiative in storage area networks

(II) The lack of ____________ across storage products from different vendors is severely limiting the growth of the virtualization market.

(a) predilection
(b) platitude
(c) gall
(d) interoperability
(e) aesthete

Solutions

S1. Ans. (b)
Sol. Among the given options, the option (b) ‘harnessing’ which means ‘control and make use of’ is the most appropriate word to fill the blank. Hence, the option (b) is the correct answer.
Exacerbating: make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse
Bumbling: lacking physical movement skills, especially with the hands
Extenuating: making less guilty or more forgivable
Flushing: to be in abundance

S2. Ans. (d)
Sol. In the highlighted statement, positions of words marked (1) and (4) seem to be correct. On interchanging (2) and (3) we will get a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful statement. The phrase “seen an fundamentally in cyberattacks” is grammatically incorrect therefore hints towards the interchange. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. Among the given options, the option (d) ‘proliferate’ which means ‘increase rapidly in number; multiply’ is the most appropriate word to fill the blank. Hence, the option (d) is the correct answer.
Verisimilitude: the appearance of being true or real
Upbraid:  find fault with (someone); scold
Harangue: lecture (someone) at length in an aggressive and critical manner
Venerate:  regard with great respect; revere

S4. Ans. (d)
Sol. Here, the most appropriate phrase to fill in the given blank is “disruption of crucial city services and infrastructure across a broad range of domains”, which makes the statement grammatically and contextually meaningful by linking broad range of domains with such as health services…. . Also, option (a) does not make a contextually meaningful sentence. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. Here, “governing” [verb] as stated in part (c) of the statement will be replaced with “governance” [noun] because the words which are linked with the conjunction ‘and’ should be same form as per the part of the speech. So we will replace governing (V) with governance (N). Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. In the highlighted statement, positions of words marked (1) and (2) seem to be correct. On interchanging (3) and (4) we will get a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful statement. The phrase “people, constantly, devices, and city infrastructure” is grammatically incorrect therefore hints towards the interchange. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S7. Ans. (e)
Sol. Here, the most appropriate phrase to fill in the given blank is “processes and makes sense of the data flowing”, which makes the statement grammatically and contextually meaningful. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

S8. Ans. (e)
Sol. There is no error in the italicized statement. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

S9. Ans. (c)
Sol. Among the given options, the option (c) ‘thorny’ which means causing distress, difficulty, or trouble’ is the most appropriate word to fill the blank. Hence, the option (c) is the correct answer.
Reticent: disinclined to talk, not revealing one’s thoughts
Decorous: characterized by good taste in manners and conduct
Dogmatic:  highly opinionated, not accepting that one’s own beliefs may not be correct
Lambaste: criticize severely or angrily

S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. Among the given options, the option (d) ‘interoperability’ which means ‘the ability of computer systems or software to exchange and make use of information’ is the most appropriate word to fill the blank. Hence, the option (d) is the correct answer.
Predilection: a strong liking
Platitude: a remark or statement, especially one with a moral content, that has been used too often to be interesting or thoughtful
Gall: bold and impudent behaviour
Aesthete: a person who is appreciative of and sensitive to art and beauty

English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Mains 2021 – 20th December_50.1

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