English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 18th October_00.1
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English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 18th October

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others.

The kind of intelligence favoured by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to a highly focused, active fixation. The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased. The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. Arousal is at first general, with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channelled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes.

The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvellously to produce different styles in predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. For both, arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it, but the animal does experience something like it. -The predator is searchingly aggressive, inner-directed, tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones, but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than, say, a hungry lizard’s instinctive snap at a passing beetle. Using past events as a framework, the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food, sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds—and yesterday’s unforgotten lessons. The herbivore prey is of a different mind. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk-thin veils of tranquillity over an explosive endocrine system.

Q1. In the above given passage, why the author has primarily referred to a hungry lizard?
(a)So as to demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals
(b) To broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example
(c) To make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness
(d) To provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators
(e) None of the above

Q2. According to the passage, improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following?
(a) Interplay of predator and prey
(b) Persistence of free-floating awareness in animals of the grasslands
(c) Gradual dominance of warm-blooded mammals over cold-blooded reptiles
(d) Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species
(e)None of the above

Q3. As per the passage, which of the following options explains the process that doesn’t occur when the process of arousal in an organism continues?
(a) the production of adrenaline
(b) the production of norepinephrine
(c) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli
(d) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem
(e) None of these

Q4. As per the information given in the passage, out of the following which option correctly describes the primary concern of the author?
(a) disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores
(b) analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores
(c) establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts
(d) describing a relationship between animals’ intelligence and their ecological roles
(e)None of these

Q5. As per the information given in the passage how arousal stimulated production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, does affect the herbivores and carnivores differently?
(a) the effect in both the herbivores and the carnivores is primarily aggression
(b) the effect in herbivores is primarily aggression, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily fear
(c) the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression
(d) the effect in herbivores is primarily apologetic, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily conciliatory
(e)None of these

Q6. How the increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals in the organisms?
(a)The increased vigilance results in the understanding of more delicate and difficult signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings.
(b) The increased vigilance results in the understanding of more delicate and difficult signals as the organism becomes more insensitive to its surroundings.
(c) The increased vigilance results in the understanding of less delicate and easy signals as the organism becomes less sensitive to its surroundings.
(d)Both (a) and (b)
(e)None of these

Q7. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Interplay
(a)Irresolute
(b)Reciprocity
(c)Indecisive
(d)Increase
(e)Intensify

Q8. Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Mediated
(a)Counterfeited
(b)Fictitious
(c) Arbitrated
(d)Abated
(e)Illusory

Q9. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Prey
(a)Quarry
(b)Confound
(c)Baffle
(d)Predator
(e)Dupe

Q10. Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

Instinctive
(a)Conscious
(b)Conspicuous
(c)Flagrant
(d)Brazen
(e)Strident

Directions (11-15): In the following questions a sentence is given, some parts of the sentence are given in bold which may have grammatical or spelling error or they may be contextually incorrect. Two columns (A) and (B) are given, column (A) consists of bold parts of the sentence and column (B) consists of the appropriate replacement for the bold parts. Match the correct replacements. If the sentence is correct mark no error as your answer.

Q11. Imputed values were the opportunity costs of both inputs and factors of production, such as land, labour or capital, meaning the costs that the farmer would incur if he had acquired these from the market or what he would have earned if he had supplied these owned resources to the market.

COLUMN (A)
(A) Imputed values were the opportunity costs of
(B) production, such as land, labour or capital
(C) the farmer would incur if he had acquired
(D) if he had supplied these owned resources

COLUMN (B)
(i) Imputed values are the opportunity costs of
(ii) production, such as lending, labour or capitals
(iii) the farmer would have incurred if he had acquired
(iv) if he will supply these owned resources

(a) D-IV and B-II
(b) B-II and C-III
(c) A-I and C-III
(d) None of the given options are correct
(e) No error

Q12. The Centre and States were in crossroads because the XIV Finance Commission recommends an increase in tax devolution from 32% to 42%, which will be perceived to have considerable adverse impact on the fiscal space of Union.
COLUMN (A)
(A) The Centre and States were in
(B) Finance Commission recommends an increase
(C) which will be perceived to have
(D) impact on the fiscal space of Union

COLUMN (B)
(i) The Centre and States were with
(ii) Finance Commission recommended an increase
(iii) which was perceived to have
(iv) impact of the fiscal space of Union

(a) D-IV and B-II
(b) B-II and C-III
(c) A-I and B-II
(d) None of the given options are correct
(e) No error

Q13. In a notified, the RBI said it is observed that some banks, on account of low or negative net profit after tax, were required to disclose divergences even where the additional provisioning assessed by RBI is small, which is contrary to the regulatory intent that only material divergences should be disclosed.

COLUMN (A)
(A) In a notified, the RBI said it is observed
(B) were required to disclose divergences even where
(C) assessed by RBI is small
(D) that only material divergences should be disclosed

COLUMN (B)
(i) In a notification, the RBI said it is observed
(ii) are required to disclose divergences even where
(iii) assessed by RBI was small
(iv) that only material divulgence should be disclosed

(a) C-III and D-IV
(b) B-II and C-III
(c) A-I and B-II
(d) None of the given options are correct
(e) No error

Q14. Ms. May says on Tuesday she would seek another short extension to Brexit beyond April 12, in order to try and work with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn to get her thrice-rejects Brexit deal approved by Parliament.

COLUMN (A)
(A) Ms. May says on Tuesday she would seek
(B) extension to Brexit beyond April 12
(C) to try and work with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn
(D) thrice-rejects Brexit deal approved by Parliament

COLUMN (B)
(i) Ms. May said on Tuesday she would seek
(ii) extended to Brexit beyond April 12
(iii) to tries and working with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn
(iv) thrice-rejected Brexit deal approved by Parliament

(a) C-III and D-IV
(b) B-II and C-III
(c) A-I and D-IV
(d) None of the given options are correct
(e) No error

Q15. Scientists at the Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology have discovered a new enzyme which helps in breaking cell walls of bacteria and hence, offers a potential for a new drug delivery route to arrest the anti-bacterial resistance through existing antibiotic drugs.

COLUMN (A)
(A) Scientists at the Centre for Cellular
(B) Biology have discovered a new enzyme
(C) offers a potential for a new drug
(D) resistance through existing antibiotic drugs

COLUMN (B)
(i) Scientists at the Centre about Cellular
(ii) Biology has discovered a new enzyme
(iii) offered a potential for a new drug
(iv) resistance through existed antibiotic drugs

(a) C-III and D-IV
(b) B-II and C-III
(c) A-I and B-II
(d) None of the given options are correct
(e) No error

Solutions

S1. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (c). The hungry lizard’s instinctive snap is contrasted with the mammal’s higher level of awareness. Option (a) and (b) are incorrect. The example of the hungry lizard provides a contrast; it doesn’t demonstrate a similarity or extend the author’s argument. Brutality is not mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the predators and there is no suggestion that all animals lack consciousness. Hence option (c) and (d) are also wrong. Hence option (c) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S2. Ans. (a)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (a). Option (a) can be inferred from the very first paragraph of the passage. Option (a) directly paraphrases the statement in the first paragraph, which describes the authors view of the development of improved brain function in early mammals. Option (b) is incorrect. It is likely that the persistence of “free floating awareness” played a part in the animal’s survival, but there is no indication in the passage that brain function improved because of it. Option (c) and (d) are incorrect: the passage doesn’t discuss the relationship between mammals and reptiles or the interaction between large mammals and less intelligent species. Hence option (a) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (d). According to the passage option (a) and (b) are correct and can be traced from the lines of the third passage where it is given as, “Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression.”
Option (c) can be inferred from the 2nd paragraph where it is given as, “The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased.”
Hence option (d) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S4. Ans. (d)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (d). As per the information given in the passage we can infer that whole of the passage has elaborated the relationship between the animals’ intelligence and their ecological role it means how the living organisms are related to one another and to their physical surroundings. Hence option (d) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (c). Option (c) can be traced from the last paragraph of the passage where it is given as “Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression.”
Hence option (c) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S6. Ans. (a)
Sol. The correct answer choice is option (a). Option (a) can be traced from the second last paragraph of the passage where it is given as “The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction.”
Hence option (a) is the correct answer choice for the given question.

S7. Ans. (b)
Sol. Option (b) is the most appropriate choice to be suited as the answer of the question.
Interplay- the way in which two or more things have an effect on each other.
Reciprocity- the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country or organization to another.
Irresolute means showing or feeling hesitancy; uncertain.
Indecisive means Not providing a clear and definite result.

S8. Ans. (c)
Sol. Option (c) is the most viable choice.
Arbitrated- (of an independent person or body) reach an authoritative judgement or settlement.
Mediated- intervene in a dispute in order to bring about an agreement or reconciliation.
Counterfeited means imitate fraudulently.
Fictitious means not real or true; imaginary or fabricated.
Abated- (of something unpleasant or severe) become less intense or widespread.
Illusory means based on illusion; not real.

S9. Ans. (d)
Sol. Option (d) is the most appropriate choice.
Prey- an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.
Predator- an animal that naturally preys on others.
Quarry- a place, typically a large, deep pit, from which stone or other materials are or have been extracted.
Confound means causing surprise or confusion in (someone), especially by not according with their expectations.
Baffle means impossible to understand; perplexing.
Dupe- a victim of deception.

S10. Ans. (a)
Sol. Option (a) is the most appropriate choice.
Instinctive- relating to or prompted by instinct; done without conscious thought.
Conscious- aware of and responding to one’s surroundings.
Hence it is the only option which is the opposite of the word given in bold.
Conspicuous- not unusual; ordinary.
Flagrant means in a conspicuously or obviously offensive way.
Brazen means in a bold and shameless way.
Strident means in an extremely forceful way.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. The sentence can be corrected by replacing the phrases (A) and (C) with (I) and (III) respectively. Phrase (A) creates a grammatical error, “were” should be replaced by “are”. Moreover, in phrase (C) “Would incur” should be replaced by “would have incurred.” In the given stanza the ‘imputed values’ have been defined the latter part of the stanza which has conditional clause to explain its meaning.
All the other highlighted phrases are correct. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S12. Ans. (b)
Sol. Phrases (B) and (C) of the sentence contain errors in them. In phrase (B) “recommends” should be replaced by “recommended” as the given sentence is in the simple past. Moreover, in phrase (C), there is an grammatical error. In phrase (C) “will be” should be replaced by “was.” Therefore, to frame a contextually meaningful sentence the phrases (B) and (C) should be replaced by (II) and (III). Hence, option (b) is the most suitable answer choice.

S13. Ans. (c)
Sol. The sentence can be corrected by replacing the phrases (A) and (B) with (I) and (II) respectively. In phrase (A), “notified” should be replaced by “notification” as former being a verb will make a grammatical error in phrase. In phrase (B), there is an error of tense where “were required” should be replaced by “are required.”
All the other highlighted phrases are correct. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S14. Ans. (c)
Sol. The sentence can be corrected by replacing the phrases (A) and (D) with (I) and (IV) respectively. In phrase (A) “May says” should be replaced by “May said.” As the given sentence is in the simple past form hence in phrase (A) the present indefinite tense should be replaced by simple past. Moreover in phrase (D) ‘thrice-rejects’ should be replaced by ‘thrice-rejected’ to make the sentence grammatically correct.
All the other highlighted phrases are correct. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S15. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the highlighted phrases of the given sentence are correct and do not require any corrections or replacements. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Prelims 2021 – 18th October_50.1

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