the best answer to each question out of the five given alternatives.
protection and management is deservedly attracting a lot of attention these
days. This is a desirable development in the face of the alarming rate of
natural resource degradation which greatly hampers their optimal utilization.
When waste waters emanating from municipal sewage, industrial effluent,
agricultural and land runoffs, find their way either to ground water reservoirs
or other surface water sources, the quality of water deteriorates, rendering it
unfit for use. The natural balance is disturbed when concentrated discharges of
waste water is not controlled. This because the cleansing forces of nature
cannot do their job in proportion to the production of filthy matter.
the National Environment Engineering and Research Institute (NEERI), a
staggering 70 percent of water available in the country is polluted. According
to the Planning Commission, “From the Dal lake in the North to the Periyar and
chaliyar rivers in the South, from Damodar and Hoogly in the East to the Thane
creek in the West, the picture of water pollution is uniformly gloomy. Even our
large perennial rivers, like the Ganga, are today heavily polluted.”
one study, all the 14 major rivers of India are highly polluted. Besides the
Ganga, these rivers include the Yamuna, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery.
These rivers carry 85 percent of the surface runoff and their drainage basins
cover 73 percent of the country. The pollution of the much revered Ganga is due
in particular to municipal sewage that accounts for 3/4th of its
pollution load. Despite India having legislation on water pollution [The water
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974] and various water pollution
control boards, rivers have today become synonymous with drains and sewers.
community wastes discharged into water courses from human settlements account
for four times as much waste water as industrial effluent. Out of India’s 3,119
towns and cities, only 217 have partial (209) or full (8) sewerage treatment
facilities and cover less than of third of the urban population, Statistics
from a report of the Central Board for Prevention and Control of Water
Pollution reveal that 1,700 of 2,700 water using industries in India, are
polluting the water around their factories. Only 160 industries have waste
water treatment plants. One estimate suggests that the volume of waste water of
industrial origin will be comparable to that of domestic sewage in India by
2000 A.D. Discharges from agricultural fields, which carry fertilizing
ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides are expected to be three
times as much as domestic sewage. By that date, thermal pollution generated by
discharges from thermal power plants will be the largest in volume.
effluents deplete the level of oxygen in the rivers, endanger all aquatic life
and render water absolutely unfit for human consumption, apart from affecting
industrial production. Sometimes, these effects have been disastrous. A recent
study reveals that the water of the Ganga, Yamuna, Kali and Hindon rivers have
considerable concentration of heavy metals due to inflow of industrial wastes,
which pose a serious health hazard to the millions living on their bands.
Similarly, the Cauvery and Kapila rivers in Karnataka have been found to
contain metal pollution which hreatens the health of people in riverine towns.
The Periyar, the largest river of Kerala, receivers extremely toxic effluent
that result in high incidence of skin problems and fish kills. The Godavari of
Andhra Pradesh and the Damodar and Hoogly in West Bengal receive untreated
industrial toxic wastes. A high level of pollution has been found in the
Yamuna, while the Chambal of Rajasthan is considered the most polluted river in
Rajasthan. Even in industrially backward Orissa, the Rushikula river is
extremely polluted. The fate of the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh, the Tungabhadra
in Karnataka, the Chaliyar in Kerala, the Gomati in U.P., the Narmada in M.P.
and the Sone and the Subarnarekha rivers in Bihar is no different.
the W.H.O., eighty percent of diseases prevalent in India are water-borne; many
of them assume epidemic proportions. The prevalence of these diseases heighten
under conditions of drought. It is also estimated that India loses as many as
73 million man days every year due to water borne diseases, costing Rs. 600
crore by way of treatment expenditure and production losses. Management of
water resources with respect to their quality also assumes greater importance
especially when the country can no more afford to waste water.
Clean-the-Ganga Project, with an action plan estimated to cost the exchequer
Rs. 250 crore (which has been accorded top priority) is a trend setter in
achieving this goal. The action plan evoked such great interest that offers of
assistance have been received from France, U.K., U.S. and the Netherlands, as
also from the World Bank. This is indeed laudable. Poland too has now joined
fact that these countries have volunteered themselves to contribute their mite
is a healthy reflection of global concern over growing environmental
degradation and the readiness of the international community to participate in
what is a truly formidable task. It may be recalled that the task of cleansing
the Ganga along the Rishikesh-Hardwar stretch under the first phase of the Ganga Action Plan, has been
completed and the results are reported to be encouraging.
of drinking water is deepening because water resources are drying up and the
lowering of ground water through over pumping, this is compounded by the
pollution of water resources. All these factors increase the magnitude of the
problem. An assessment of the progress achieved by the end of March 1985, on
completion of the first phase of the International Drinking Water Supply and
Sanitation Dacade (1981–91), reveals that drinking water has been made
available to 73 percent of the urban population and 56 percent to the rural
population only. This means that nearly half the country’s rural population has
to get drinking water facilities. This needs to be urgently geared up
especially when considered against the Government’s professed objective of
providing safe drinking water and sanitation to all by the end of the
International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, i.e., March 1991.
The foremost action in this would be to clean up our water resources.
surveys conducted by the NEERI, per capita drinking water losses in different
cities in the country range between 11,000 to 31,000 liters annually. This
indicates a waste level of 20-35 percent of the total flow of water in the
distribution system, primarily due to leaks in mains and household service
pipes. Preventive maintenance programme would substantially reduce
losses/wastages and would certainly go a long way in solving the problem.
the Union Ministry of Works and Housing, out of 2.31 lakh problem villages
identified in 1980, 1.92 lakh (83 percent) villages have been provided with at
least one source of drinking water as of March 1986. The balance (38,748)
villages are expected to be covered during the seventh plan. A time-bound
national policy on drinking water is being formulated by Government, wherein
the task is proposed to be completed by the end of the seventh plan. An outlay
of Rs. 6,522.47 crores has been allotted for the water supply and sanitation
sector in the seventh plan period, against an outlay of Rs. 3,922.02 crores in
the sixth plan. Of this, outlay for rural water supply sector is Rs. 3,454.47
crores. It is expected that this outlay would help to cover about 86.4 percent
of the urban and 82.2 percent of the rural population with safe drinking water
facilities by March 1991.Hygienic sanitation facilities would be provided to
44.7 percent and 1.8 percent of the urban and rural population respectively
within, the same period.
degradation of natural resources will necessarily lead to:
economic utilization of resources.
of water from municipal sewage.
unfit for human consumption.
According to NEERI:
extent of water pollution in the Dal Lake is grim.
percent of total water available in the country is polluted.
out of 3119 towns and cities have sewage treatment facilities.
14 major rivers of India are highly polluted.
Municipal sewage pollutants account for:
lowest percentage of water pollution.
percent of the Ganga’s water pollution load.
the volume of the waste water of industrial origin.
times as much as the discharge from agricultural fields.
the following statements is correct?
river Periyar is in South India.
river Periyar is the largest river of Kerala.
river Gomti is also extremely polluted.
the above are correct.
the above is correct.
of the Clean-the-Ganga Pollution Project Action Plan is likely to be sourced
U.K., U.S and the Netherlands.
World Bank, Poland, U.K.
U.S., U.K., Netherlands, Poland, France, the World Bank and India.
the following statements made by the WHO is correct?
Water-borne diseases account for eighty percent of all diseases prevalent in
diseases in India create a loss of Rs. 600 crores every year.
Considerable amounts of metal pollutants are found in the river(s):
Hoogly,, Krishna and Gomti.
Yamuna, Kali, Hindon, Cauvery and Kapila.
crisis of drinking water is caused chiefly by:
pollution caused by industrial development.
up of water sources and over-pumping.
remedy for water shortage lies in:
up more pumps in rural areas.
up polluted water.
the waste level of 25-30 percent of the total flow of water.
the total outlay for water supply and sanitation in the seventh plan, rural
water supply sector would receive.
65 and 80 percent.
(11-15): Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in
the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the
questions given below.
public or the private sector, similarly requires that managers be answerable
for the tasks which they have contracted to perform, according to agreed
standards of competence.
parliamentary systems, ministers are held to account through oral and written
questions- in some cases through ‘interpellation’, that is, through requiring
them to give a detailed response to a question on policy or administration.
in which rulers cannot be held to account, either by representatives or by
judges, are called arbitrary and authoritarian.
Political accountability is the hallmark of responsible and representative
Political accountability requires the actions of politicians, or public officials,
whether they be administrative, ethical or financial, to be open to inspection,
scrutiny and challenge.
of the following should be the First sentence of the given paragraph?
of the following should be the Third sentence of the given paragraph?
of the following should be the Fifth sentence of the given paragraph?
of the following should be the Fourth sentence of the given paragraph?
of the following should be the Second sentence of the given paragraph?