English Vinglish | Adjectives


English tends to boggle your mind with its rules and exception in grammar and vocabulary. This as a very big issue for the students who lack confidence in English. So, to help you out with the small confusing terms and rules, Adda247 is introducing a new trend to clear all your doubts with this post. 5 rules will be published with examples and explanations. Let’s hang together and learn together.

Now moving on to the next topic of the series, Adjective. To the answer of the question what is an adjective, These are the words that tell us about the noun or add meaning.
For example –
She is a kind lady.
We live in a large house.
He is a strong player.

Types of an adjective:

1. Coordinate Adjectives – groups of adjectives that band together to modify the same noun
For example – It was a bright, sunny, and glorious morning along the Beach.
2. Demonstrative Adjectives – point to “which” noun or pronoun you’re speaking about.
this, that, these, those
For example – That bike used to be mine.
3. Descriptive Adjectives – give the noun a quality or attribute.
For example – The silly cat rolled around on the carpet for hours.
4. Distributive Adjectives – points out specific entities.
any, each, either, every, neither
For example – I bought every handbag in that store.
5. Indefinite Adjectives –  point to non-specific items
any, few, many, no, several
For example – My father doesn’t want any backtalk.
6. Interrogative Adjectives – to pose a question.
what, which, whose
For example – Which dress do you want to order?
7. Possessive Adjectives – show possession.
his, her, my, our, their, your
For example – Don’t touch our Audi.
Note – Adjectives are immediately followed by the noun, to eliminate the requirement of the corresponding noun, you need to change the adjective. Only “his” stays the same.
his, hers, mine, ours, theirs, yours
For example – The ring? That’s hers.
8. Predicate Adjectives – they come before the noun they modify.
am, are, was, were
For example – They were efficient.
9. Proper Adjectives – capitalized adjectives derived from proper nouns.
For example – I adore Chinese food.
10. Quantitative Adjectives –  describe the quantity of something.
For example – In the near future, I hope to have six kittens.
11. Sequence Adjectives
(a)  illustrate the order of things without using a specific number.
For example – I’ll watch the later show.
(b) assign an order to your numbers.
For example – He ate the third burger.
12. Emphatic Adjective – said or done with strong emotion or action
Own, such, same, very
For example – Such beautiful poetry.

Now coming up with the rules:

Rule 1:

An exception to comparative and superlative forms- 

(A) There are some adjectives that don’t admit of any comparative and superlative degree.
Such adjectives denotes absolute position.
“Perfect, Unique, Ideal, Chief, Universal, Extreme, Complete, Entire, Excellent, Absolute, Impossible, Eternal, Supreme”

If we look at the meaning these words are already comparative and superlative.
Example 1- I have never seen a more complete book on General Studies. (no need of ‘more’)
Example 2- Anger is the chiefest cause of destruction. (Use ‘chief’)
Example 3-  How can we make India the most supreme power? (remove ‘the most’)

(B) The comparative adjectives such as-
“Prior, Junior, Senior, Superior, Inferior, Prefer, Elder followed by to instead of than and nor they are used as a comparative degree-
For example – 
1.  He is senior than me in service. ( replace ‘than’ with ‘to’)
2.  She prefers coffee rather than tea. ( replace ‘than’ with ‘to’)
3.  Milk is more preferable to tea. ( remove ‘more’)

4.  My sister is elder than me by two years. ( replace ‘than’ with ‘to’)

Rule 2:

Comparison- Comparison of the same noun
When two adjectives quality the same noun, both the adjectives should be expressed in the same degree.
For example – She is both cleverer and intelligent than her sister. ( not ‘Cleverer’  just ‘clever’ )

 Rule 3:

The Correct use of 
1.  Some, any- To express quantity or degree some is used normally in affirmative sentences
Any –  negative or interrogative sentences.
Example – I will buy some mangoes.
Example – I will not buy any mangoes.

Exception- But any can be used if in affirmative sentences-
Example – If you need any money I will help you.

Some are used in questions which are really offers/ requests or which expect the answer ”yes”.
Example – Will you have some ice-cream? (offer)
Example – Could you lend me some money? (Request)

 Rule 4:

The Correct use of  Each, Every-  
Each and Every are similar in meaning.
 – Each is used in speaking of two or more things.
 – Every is used more than two.

Note- Each and Every takes a singular noun and a singular verb.
Each and Every+ Of+ plural Noun+ Singular Verb
For Example –
1.  Every seat was taken.
2.  Each one of these chairs is broken.
3.  It rained every day during my holiday.

Rule 5:

1.  Little, a Little, the little
A)  Little= not much(I.e. hardly any). Thus, the adjective little has a negative meaning.
For Example –

1.  There is little hope of recovery.

2.  He showed little mercy to the poor.
B)  A little= some through not much. ‘A little has a positive meaning
There is a little hope of his recovery- that is he may recover some hope is there.
For Example –

1. A little tact would have saved the situation.

2. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
C)  The little- not much, but all there
For Example –

1. The little information he had was quite reliable.
2. The little knowledge of carpentry that he possessed stood him in good.

That’s all for today’s blog. We will again present you with more rules and examples. All the best.