Night Class: English Quiz for IBPS/BOM Exam

Directions (1-12): Read the following passage carefully and choose
the best answer to each question out of the five given alternatives.
Management education
gained new academic stature within US Universities and greater respect from
outside during the 1960s and 1970s. Some observers attribute the competitive
superiority of US corporations to the quality of business education. In 1978, a
management professor, Herbert A. Simon of Carnegie Mellon University, won the
Nobel Prize in economics for his work in decision theory. And the popularity of
business education continued to grow since 1960’s and the MBA has become known
as the passport to the good life.

By the
1980s, however, US business schools faced critics who charged that learning had
little relevance to real business problems. Some went so far as to blame
business schools for the decline in US competitiveness.

Amidst the
criticisms, four distinct arguments may be discerned. The first is that
business schools must be either unnecessary or deleterious because Japan does
so well without them. Underlying these arguments is the idea that management
ability cannot be taught-one is either born with it or must acquire it over
years of practical experience. A second argument is that business schools are
overly academic and theoretical. They teach quantitative models that have
little application to real world problems. Third, they give inadequate
attention to shop floor issues, to production processes and to management
resources. Finally, it is argued that they encourage undesirable attitudes in
students, such as placing value in the short term, on bottom line targets,
while neglecting longer term developmental criteria. In summary, some business
executives complain that MBA’s are incapable of making day-to-day peritoneal
decisions, unable to communicate and to motivate people, and unwilling to
accept responsibility for following through implementation plans. We shall
analyze these criticisms after having reviewed experiences in other countries.
In contrast
to be the expansion and development of business education in the United States
and more recently in Europe, Japanese business schools graduate no more than two
hundred MBA’s each year. The Keio Business School (KBS) was the only graduate
school of management in the entire country until the mid 1970s and it still
boasts the only two-year masters programme. The absence of business schools in
Japan would appear in contradiction with the high priority placed upon learning
by its Confucian culture. Confucian colleges taught administrative skills as
early as 1630 and Japan wholeheartedly accepted Western learning following the
Meiji restoration of 1868 when hundreds of students were dispatched to
universities in the U.S.A., Germany, England and France, to learn the secrets
of western technology and modernization. Moreover, the Japanese educational
system is highly developed and intensely competitive and can be credited for
raising the literary and mathematical abilities of the Japanese to the highest
level in the world.
Until
recently, Japanese corporations have not been interested in using either local
or foreign business schools for the development of their future executives.
Their in-company-training programmers have sought the socialization of
newcomers, the younger the better. The training is highly specific and those
who receive it. Have neither the capacity nor the incentive to quit. The
prevailing belief says Imai, is that management should be borne out of
experience and many years of effort and not learnt from educational
institutions. A 1960 survey of Japanese senior executives confirmed that a
majority (54%) believed that managerial capabilities can be attained only on
the job and not in universities.
However,
this view seems to be changing, the same survey revealed that even as early as
1960, 37% of senior executives felt that the universities should teach
integrate professional management. In the 1980s, a combination of increased
competitive pressures and greater multi-nationalisation of Japanese business
are making the Japanese take a fresh look at Management Education.
Q1. The
1960s and 1970s can best be described as a period
(a) when
quality business education contributed to the superiority of US corporations.
(b) when the
number of MBA’s rose from under 5,000 to over 50,000.
(c) when
management education gained new academic stature and greater respect.
(d) when the
MBA became more disreputable.
(e) people realized
that management ability cannot be taught.
Q2.
According to the passage,
(a)
learning, which was useful in the 1960s and 1970’s became irrelevant in the
1980s.
(b) management
education faced criticisms in the 1980s.
(c) business
schools are insensitive to the needs of industry.
(d) by the
1980s, business schools contributed to the decline in US competitiveness.
(e) prevailing
beliefs regarding educational institutions.
Q3. The
growth in the popularity of business schools among students was most probably
due to
(a) Herber
A. Simon, a management professor winning the Nobel Prize in economics.
(b) the gain
in academic stature.
(c) the
large number of MBA degrees awarded.
(d) a
perception that it was a ‘passport to the good life’.
(e) is
better that the American system
Q4. A
criticism that management education did not face was that:
(a) it
imparted poor quantitative skills to MBAs.
(b) it was
unnecessary and deleterious.
(c) it was
irrevocably irrelevant.
(d) it
inculcated undesirable attitudes in students.
(e) when
quality business education contributed to the superiority of US corporations.
Q5. US
business schools faced criticism in the 1980s because:
(a) of the
decline in Japanese competitiveness.
(b) many
critics felt that learning had little relevance to business problems.
(c) people
realized that management ability cannot be taught.
(d) MBAs
were unwilling to accept responsibility for implementation on the shop floor.
(e) management
education faced criticisms in the 1980s.
Q6. The
absence of business schools in Japan
(a) is due
to the prevalent belief that management ability can only be acquired over years
of practical experience.
(b) was due
to the high priority placed on learning as opposed to doing in Confucian
culture.
(c) is hard
to explain for the proponents of business education.
(d) contributed
a great deal to their success in international trade and business.
(e) it
inculcated undesirable attitudes in students.
Q7. The
Japanese were initially able to do without business schools as a result of:
(a) their
highly developed and intensively competitive education system.
(b) dispatching
hundreds of students to learn the secrets of western technology and
modernization.
(c) their
highly specific in-company training programmes.
(d) prevailing
beliefs regarding educational institutions.
(e) a
perception that it was a ‘passport to the good life’.
Q8. The
Japanese modified their views on management education because of:
(a) greater
exposure to U.S. MBA programmes.
(b) the need
to develop worldwide contacts and become Americanised.
(c) the
outstanding success of business schools in the U.S. during the 1960’s and
1970s.
(d) a
combination of increased competitive pressures and greater multinationalisation
of Japanese business.
(e) their
highly specific in-company training programmes.
Q9. Training
programmes in Japanese corporations have
(a) been
based upon Confucian culture.
(b) sought
the socialization of newcomers.
(c) been
targeted at people who have neither the capacity not the incentive to quit.
(d) been
teaching people to do menial tasks.
(e) is
better that the American system
Q10. The
author argues that
(a) Japanese
do not do without business schools as in generally perceived.
(b) Japanese
corporations do not hire MBAs because of traditions of universal and rigorous
academic education, lifelong employment and strong group identification.
(c) Placing
MBAs in operational and menial tasks is a major factor in Japanese business
success.
(d) U.S.
corporations should emulate the Japanese and change the way new recruits are
inducted.
(e) their
highly developed and intensively competitive education system.
Q11. The
main difference between U.S. and Japanese corporations is:
(a) that one
employs MBAs, the other does not.
(b) that
U.S. corporations do not employ Japanese people.
(c) the U.S.
corporations pay more to fresh recruits.
(d) in the
process of selecting and orienting new recruits.
(e) their
highly specific in-company training programmes.
Q12. The
author argues that the Japanese system
(a) is
better that the American system
(b) is
highly productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result
of its strong traditions.
(c) is
slowly becoming Americanised.
(d) succeeds
without business schools, whereas the U.S. system fails because of it.
(e) Japanese
corporations do not hire MBAs because of traditions of universal and rigorous
academic education, lifelong employment and strong group identification.
Directions (13-15): Pick out the most effective pair of
words from the given pair of words to make the sentence/ sentences meaningfully
complete.

Q13. Few professions can ______ the sheer variety and
constant _________ of being a doctor.
(a) like, struggle
(b) share, enthusiast
(c) match, challenge
(d) draw, workload
(e) studious, respect
Q14. The organization ________ to popularize Indian
classical music among the youth which has lost ________ with its cultural
roots.
(a) endeavours, touch
(b) wishes, interest
(c) efforts, experience
(d) exerts, intrigue
(e)  cited, reason
Q15. One of the major critiques of the examination system is
that it _________ to a spirit of _______ competition among the students.
(a) results, defective
(b) accompanies, adequate
(c) develops, intense
(d) leads, unhealthy
(e) polite, basic



Solutions
S1. Ans.(c)
Sol. when management education gained
new academic stature and greater respect.
S2. Ans.(b)
Sol. management education faced
criticisms in the 1980s.

S3. Ans.(b)
Sol. the gain in academic stature.

S4. Ans.(c)
Sol. it was irrevocably irrelevant.
S5. Ans.(b)
Sol. many critics felt that learning
had little relevance to business problems.
S6. Ans.(a)
Sol. is due to the prevalent belief
that management ability can only be acquired over years of practical
experience.
S7. Ans.(a)
Sol. their highly developed and
intensively competitive education system.

S8. Ans.(d)
Sol. a combination of increased
competitive pressures and greater multinationalisation of Japanese business.

S9. Ans.(b)
Sol. sought the socialization of
newcomers.

S10. Ans.(a)
Sol.  Japanese do
not do without business schools as in generally perceived.
S11. Ans.(d)
Sol.  in the
process of selecting and orienting new recruits.
S12. Ans.(b)
Sol.  is highly
productive and gives corporate leadership a long-term view as a result of its
strong traditions.
S13. Ans.(c)
Sol.  match, challenge fits in the
context of the sentence correctly.
S14. Ans.(a)
Sol.  endeavors, touch fits in the
context of the sentence correctly.
S15. Ans.(d)
Sol.  leads, unhealthy fits in the
context of the sentence correctly.