Directions (Q. 1 – 10): Read the following passage very carefully and answer the questions given below. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
There is nothing undesirable in science or technology. But the question of science and ethics is complex. A few dominant groups may take decisions affecting whole populations. Therefore, we have to learn as quickly as possible how to manage emerging technology in a true public- interest perspective. The best way to do this is to encourage participatory decision making so that science and technology policies are a natural consequence of wider democratic processes. As most countries today are moving towards democratic forms of society, decisions are now increasingly being taken not by experts alone, but by the public at large. We have seen this with nuclear power stations, hydroelectric dams, toxic-waste disposal etc. Technology assessment and forecasting can be usefully based on the views of several organisations including non-scientific people. Such a forecasting system should come out with scenarios on the basis of which decisions can be taken at the national and the global levels.
The science-communication capability of a society, at the grass-roots level, is of critical importance. However, we have very little expertise in this direction. The scientific community may not be well equipped to understand the social implications of its research. So, it should work closely with social scientists, public interest groups, the bureaucracy and the political system. Scientists have to inform the end users about the developments in science and technology and their consequences in a language which they can understand. Earlier, we used to talk about superstitions and inculcating scientific temper among people. Now, a new cadre of science communicators with an entirely new orientation is needed. Also, each new science and technology project must earmark allocations for educating the public. Even in the case of social development problems, such as health, malnutrition, and sanitation, the problem is essentially of delivery. It is largely a question of involving people in the delivery system.
Globalisation has created both concerns and opportunities for scientific research. The cost of research is going up because it is increasingly instrument-oriented and instruments are expensive. Moreover, research is seen as a business investment and business looks for heavy and quick returns. There is a tendency to closely guard intellectual knowledge to become competitive in the market. As a consequence, many people with good ideas are kept away from practising science. This is a major concern for developing countries. These countries possess the maximum number of talented and original minds, yet the number of scientific people for research from these countries is dwindling. Our science and technology delivery system is weak. When a technology is developed, its efficacy depends upon the delivery mechanism adopted, how we take results of the laboratory to the end users. Our scientists and technologists in the West contribute greatly to the world’s economy but the same people cannot do it here because of the weak delivery system. The issues of technology transfer, commercialisation and adoption need to be addressed seriously. We have to adjust our research and development priorities and technology development paths in view of the competitive market conditions. Globalisation has increased the mobility of trained people.
But it has also resulted in huge financial compensations and human resource costs. Now, a person trained in infotech for a mere three months may be paid far more than the highest paid scientist in the country. This is not because of the value of the expertise, but is an insurance in lieu of increased mobility. For us, the rapidly expanding global market for trained human resources is a big opportunity. Out of 20 million students in the country, even if we manage to train one million in emerging technologies, we can soon emerge as a world leader in this field.
1. How can the risk involved in technology be controlled and managed?
1) Dominant groups, reaching out to masses must be curbed.
2) Public and experts are to participate equally importantly.
3) Science and ethics are to be alienated.
4) The scientific commodity has to be well equipped.
5) Science and technology system must be strengthened.
2. Which of the following comprises the risk involved in S & T?
1) Delivery system
2) Inability to reach out to public
3) Lack of globalisation
4) Rearch and development system
5) Brain drain
3. Why has our research and development system come up with few commercially successful innovations?
1) Weak science and technology system
2) Exodus of scientists to the west
3) The laboratory remains the abode of the results.
4) Lack of mobility of trained personnel
5) None of these
4. What changes are required in research and development management in the present globalised environment?
1) Research and development must be cost-friendly.
2) Open-door and liberal policies
3) Science has to become less indiscreet.
4) Our scientists in the West must be encouraged.
5) None of these
5. What are the new opportunities created by globalisation?
1) Discrepancies in jobs are decreasing.
2) One-million trained human resource
3) High human-resource cost
4) Availability of trained personnel
5) None of these
6. Who are the ‘end-users’?
3) Rearch and development wing
4) Market and society
Directions (Q. 7 – 8): Which of the following is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage?
Directions (Q. 9 – 10): Which of the following is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage?
1) Break promise
4) Without warranty
10. AT LARGE
1) In general