News Editorial 1– James P. Allison, Tasuku Honjo win Nobel Prize in Medicine for cancer research
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo, by the Nobel committee of the Karolinska Institute. The two immunologists — from the U.S. and Japan, respectively — were awarded the Prize “for their discovery of cancer therapy by (1) inhibition (obstruction, impediment, retardation) of negative immune regulation.” “Cancer kills millions of people every year and is one of humanity’s greatest health challenges.
By (2) stimulating (restoring, reviving, refreshing) the (3) inherent (intrinsic, innate, inborn) ability of our immune system to attack tumor cells this year’s Nobel (4) Laureates (distinguished, victor, significant) have established an entirely new principle for cancer therapy,” read a statement from the Academy. “James P. Allison studied a protein that functions as a brake on the immune system. He realized the potential of releasing the brake and (5) unleashing (liberating, unbinding, unfettering) our immune cells to attack tumours. Tasuku Honjo discovered a protein on immune cells and revealed that it also operates as a brake, but with a different mechanism of action.
News Editorial 2– Justice Ranjan Gogoi sworn in as Chief Justice of India
Justice Ranjan Gogoi was on Wednesday sworn in as the 46th Chief Justice of India. President Ram Nath Kovind administered the oath to Justice Gogoi, 63, at a brief ceremony in Rashtrapati Bhavan’s Darbar Hall. Justice Gogoi, who took the oath in English in the name of God, will have a tenure of a little over 13 months and will retire on November 17, 2019. He succeeds Justice Dipak Misra who retired on Tuesday after attaining the age of 65 years. Born on November 18, 1954, Justice Gogoi, who belongs to Dibrugarh in Assam, enrolled as an advocate in 1978. It (6) stipulates (prescribes, imposes, insists) that the Law Minister will, at an appropriate time, seek the recommendation of the outgoing CJI for the appointment of a successor.
Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad recently said the executive will (7) take a call (to make a decision or a judgment) to when the (8) incumbent (holder, bearer, occupant) names the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court as his successor as per (9) convention (agreement, accord, protocol). Mr. Prasad was responding to a question at the Law Ministry’s annual press conference on whether the government will follow (10) laid-down (to state officially) conventions and procedures to appoint Justice Gogoi as Justice Misra’s successor.
Courtesy: The Hindu
1. INHIBITION (noun) अवरोध
Meaning: the act of stopping or slowing down a process.
Synonyms: hindrance, hampering, obstruction, impediment, retardation, curbing, checking, suppression, repression, restriction, restraint, constraint, bridling, shackling, fettering, prevention, barrier.
Antonyms: catalyst, goad, impetus, incentive, spur, stimulant, stimulus, edge, aid, assistance, benefit, boost, help.
2. STIMULATE (verb) प्रोत्साहित करना
Meaning: raise levels of physiological or nervous activity in (the body or any biological system).
Synonyms: invigorating, bracing, energizing, restoring, reviving, refreshing, revitalizing, vivifying, revivifying rejuvenate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, resuscitate, revitalize, revive
Antonyms: enervate, enfeeble, exhaust, fag, fatigue, harass, weaken, weary
curb, jade, repress, restrain, slow, suppress.
3. INHERENT (adjective) निहित
Meaning: existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute.
Synonyms: intrinsic, innate, built-in, inborn, ingrained, essential, fundamental, basic, implicit, structural, characteristic, permanent, indelible, ineradicable, inexpungible, instinctive, instinctual, congenital.
Antonyms: coincidental, incidental, acquired, superficial, exterior, external, adventitious, extraneous, extrinsic.
4. LAUREATE (noun) पुरस्कार विजेता
Meaning: a person who is honored with an award for outstanding creative or intellectual achievement.
Synonyms: distinguished, victor, champion, winner, patrician, significant, glorious.
Antonyms: dishonorable, unknown, unimportant, inglorious, insignificant, infamous.
5. UNLEASH (verb) खोल देना
Meaning: to suddenly release a violent force that cannot be controlled.
Synonyms: emancipate, enfranchise, free, liberate, manumit, unbind, uncage, unchain, unfetter, unmoor, unshackle, express, take out, vent.
Antonyms: bind, confine, enchain, fetter, hamper, bridle, check, constrain, control, curb, hold, regulate, restrain, tame.
6. STIPULATE (verb) अनुबंध करना
Meaning: demand or specify (a requirement), typically as part of an agreement.
Synonyms: specify, set down, set forth, demand, require, insist on, prescribe, impose, provide, specialize, enjoin, assign, undertake, state, particularize, arrange.
Antonyms: give up, relinquish, surrender, yield, imply, wish.
7. TAKE A CALL (Phrase) तय करना
Meaning: to make a decision or a judgment.
Usage: Why don’t you go for a second opinion. It’s hightime we got to take a call on that.
8. INCUMBENT (noun) पदग्राही
Meaning: the holder of an office or post.
Synonyms: holder, bearer, occupant; office-holder, office-bearer, officer, functionary, official.
Antonyms: noncurrent, candidate, optional, elective, layman, emeritus, aspirant, unimportant.
9. CONVENTION (noun) सभागम
Meaning: an agreement between states covering particular matters.
Synonyms: agreement, accord, protocol, compact, treaty, concordat, entente, arrangement, contract, bargain, deal.
Antonyms: disagreement, variance, nonconformity, exemption, abnormality, oddity, conflict.
10. LAY-DOWN (phrasal verb) निर्धारित करना
Meaning: to state officially what someone must do or how they must do it.
Usage: The rules laid down that he could not directly intervene.