English Vinglish: Adverbs


English tends to boggle your mind with its rules and exception in grammar and vocabulary. This as a very big issue for the students who lack confidence in English. So, to help you out with the small confusing terms and rules, Adda247 is introducing a new trend to clear all your doubts with this post. 5 rules will be published with examples and explanations. Let's hang together and learn together.

We studied the Adjectives in the last post and moving on to our next topic Adverbs. An adverb is a word that is used to add something to the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb. Basically, it is said to modify or we can also say upgrade verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
For example - 
We were walking slowly towards the bus stand.
The food was warm so he was eating slowly.

Kinds of adverbs:

1. Adverb of time: Before, Ago, lately, yet, now, soon, yesterday.

2. Adverb of frequency: Always, once, seldom usually, rarely, etc.

3. Adverb of place: Here, everywhere, down, near away, backward.

4. Adverb of manner: Slowly, so, soundly, delightfully.

5. Adverb of affirmation and negation: certainly, apparently, obviously, no, Undoubtedly.

6. Adverb of degree: Almost, fully, very, enough, rather, quite, too, really.

7. Interrogative adverb: How, what, when, why.

8. Relative adverb: When, where, why, how. (used to make an adjective clause)
For example - He was born in the year when I left India.

Now coming up with the rules:

Rule 1:
Adjective qualifies a noun and a pronoun whereas adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, and an adverb. 
For example - 
1. Her dance was remarkable. (Correct)
2. She danced remarkably to achieve success. (Correct)
3. She ran quicker than I.  (Incorrect)
She ran more quickly than I. (Correct)

Rule 2:
Use of else and other. 
'Else' should be followed by 'but'.
'Other' and 'Otherwise' are followed by 'than'.
For example - 
1. It is nothing else than sheer madness. (Incorrect)
It is nothing else but sheer madness. (Correct)

2. She had no other alternative but stay here. (Incorrect)
She had no other alternative than stay here. (Correct)

3. She has no one to look after her except me. (Incorrect)
She has no one to look after her but me. (Correct)

Rule 3:
When the sentence is introduced by an adverb, we use the inverted form of the verb for the sake of emphasis. 
For example - 
1. Seldom she visits her brother. (Incorrect)
Seldom does she visit her brother. (Correct)

2. Never I'll see her again. (Incorrect)
Never will I  see her again. (Correct)

3. So quickly he ran that he overtook his rivals. (Incorrect)
So quickly did he run that he overtook his rivals. (Correct)

Rule 4:
Negative adverbs should not be used with the words negative in meaning. So, two negatives should be avoided.
'Seldom, nowhere, never, nothing, hardly, scarcely, neither, barely, rarely are some of the adverbs expressing negative meaning.
For example - 
1. I hardly know somebody in school. (Incorrect)
I hardly know anybody in school. (Correct)

2. This will not help her, Nothing never does. (Incorrect)
This will not help her, Nothing ever does. (Correct)

3. He does not write well and I do not write neither. (Incorrect)
 He does not write well and I do not write either. (Correct)

Note: Use of negative, with words like deny, forbid and both.
For example - 
Both of us are not going there. (Incorrect)
Neither of us is going there. (Correct)

He denied that he had not given her money. (Incorrect)
He denied that he had given her money. (Correct)

Rule 5:
The use of very, too,  much, enough, so, rather'.
 (i) Very - It modifies present participle used as an adjective, adverb, and adjective in the positive degree. 'much' is used with a comparative degree and past participle.

Note: 'Very' and 'much'
For example - 
He gave a much innovative idea for the problem in the system. (Incorrect)
He gave a very innovative idea for the problem in the system. (Correct)

She is the very best dancer in the school. - the use of 'very' means 'really'.
He is by far the best singer I have ever heard singing. - 'by far' means to a large extent'.

(ii) 'So' is not supposed to be used without 'that' (adverb clause) and 'too' should always be followed by 'to' (infinitive).

Note: Very and much may be used in the place of so and too.
For example - 
I was studying so that I can clear the examination this year.
You have too much ignorance in you to realize your mistakes.

(iii) 'Enough' is both an adjective and an adverb. 
If used as an adverb it is placed after the adjective it modifies.
For example - She is wise enough wise to allow her daughter to travel alone.

And as an adjective, it is placed before a noun.
For example -  He has enough money to spend so recklessly.

(iv) The use of 'rather'
(a) rather is an adverb of degree like quite, pretty, fairly (to some extent).
For example - We ere walking rather slowly.

(b) Rather can also be used as a noun.
For example - 
1. It is a rather good step to take against the current issue. (Correct)
2. It is rather a good step to take against the current issue. (Correct)

Explanation - Article a, an should always be placed before the noun. If there is an adjective with a noun, article 'a', 'an' may be placed either before or after rather.


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