English Language Quiz for IBPS 2020 Mains Exams- 20th December

Directions (1-7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Have you ever come across a painting, by Picasso, Mondrian, Miro, or any other modern abstract painter of this century, and found yourself engulfed in a brightly-coloured canvas which your senses cannot interpret? Many people would tend to denounce abstractionism as senseless trash. These people are disoriented by Miro’s bright, fanciful creatures and two-dimensional canvases. They click their tongues and shake their heads at Mondrian’s grid works, declaring that the poor guy played too many scrabble games. They silently shake their heads in sympathy for Picasso, whose gruesome, distorted figures must be a reflection of his mental health. Then, standing in front of a work by Charlie Russell, the famous western artist, they’ll declare it a work of God. People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought. This is the case with the work of Charlie Russell. Being able to recognize the elements in his paintings — trees, horses and cowboys — gives people a safety line to their world of ‘reality’. There are some who would disagree when I say abstract art requires more creativity and artistic talent to produce a good piece than does representational art, but there are many weaknesses in their arguments.

People who look down on abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell: therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress. Secondly, they feel that the purpose of art is to create something of beauty in an orderly, logical composition. Russell’s compositions are balanced and rational: everything sits calmly on the canvas, leaving the viewer satisfied that he has seen all there is to see. The modern abstractionists, on the other hand, seem to compose their pieces irrationally. For example, upon seeing Picasso’s Guernica, a friend of mine asked me, “What‘s the point?” Finally, many people feel that art should portray the ideal and real. The exactness of detail in Charlie Russell’s work is an example of this. He has been called a great historian because his pieces depict the lifestyle, dress, and events of the times. His subject matter is derived from his own experiences on the trial, and reproduced to the smallest detail.

I agree in part with many of these arguments, and at one time even endorsed them. But now, I believe differently. Firstly, I object to the argument that abstract artists are not capable of drafting. Many abstract artists, such as Picasso, are excellent draftsmen. As his work matured, Picasso became more abstract in order to increase the expressive quality of his work. Guernica was meant as a protest against the bombing of that city by the Germans. To express the terror and suffering of the victims more vividly, he distorted the figures and presented them in a black and white journalistic manner. If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did. Secondly, I do not think that a piece must be logical and aesthetically pleasing to be art. The message it conveys to its viewers is more important. It should reflect the ideals and issues of its time and be true to itself, not just a flowery, glossy surface. For example, through his work, Mondrian was trying to present a system of simplicity, logic, and rational order. As a result, his pieces did end up looking like a scrabble board.

Miro created powerful, surrealistic images from his dreams and subconscious. These artists were trying to evoke a response from society through an expressionistic manner. Finally, abstract artists and representational artists maintain different ideas about ‘reality’. To the representational artist, reality is what he sees with his eyes. This is the reality he reproduces on canvas. To the abstract artist, reality is what he feels about what his eyes see. This is the reality he interprets on canvas. This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.

A cycle of abstract and representational art began with the first scratchings of prehistoric man. From the abstractions of ancient Egypt to representational, classical Rome, returning to abstractionism in early Christian art and, so on up to the present day, the cycle has been going on. But this day and age may witness its death through the camera. With film, there is no need to produce finely detailed, historical records manually; the camera does this for us more efficiently. Maybe, representational art would cease to exist. With abstractionism as the victor of the first battle, maybe, a different kind of cycle will be touched off. Possibly, sometime in the distant future, thousands of years from now, art itself will be physically non-existent. Some artists today believe that once they have planned and constructed a piece in their mind, there is no sense in finishing it with their hands; it has already been done and can never be duplicated.

Q1. The author believes that people feel comfortable with representational art because
(a) they are not engulfed in brightly-coloured canvases.
(b) they do not have to click their tongues and shake their heads in sympathy.
(c) they understand the art without putting too much strain on their minds.
(d) painting like Guernica do not have a point.
(e) All of these

Q2. In the author’s opinion, Picasso’s Guernica created a strong demand for justice since
(a) it was a protest against the German bombing of Guernica.
(b) Picasso managed to express the emotional content well with his abstract depiction.
(c) it depicts the terror and suffering of the victims in a distorted manner.
(d)it was a mature work of Picasso, painted when the artist’s drafting skills were excellent.
(e) Both (c) and (d)

Q3.The author argues that many people look down upon abstract art because they feel that
(a) modern abstract art does not portray what is ideal and real.
(b) abstract artists are unskilled in matters of technical drafting.
(c) abstractionists compose irrationally.
(d) Both (b) and (c)
(e)All of the above

Q4. The author acknowledges that Mondrian’s pieces may have ended up looking like a scrabble board because
(a) many people declared the poor guy played too many scrabble games.
(b) Mondrian believed in the ‘grid-works’ approach to abstractionist painting.
(c) Mondrian was trying to convey the message of simplicity and rational order.
(d) Mondrian learned from his Trees series to evolve a grid system.
(e) None of these

Q5. The main difference between the abstract artist and the representational artist in matters of the ‘ideal’ and the ‘real’, according to the author, is:
(a) How each chooses to deal with ‘reality’ on his or her canvas.
(b) The superiority of interpretation of reality over reproduction of reality.
(c) The different values attached by each to being a historian.
(d) The varying levels of drafting skills and logical thinking abilities.
(e) All of these

Q6. Choose the word/group of words which is most SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Denounce
(a)candid
(b)allure
(c)sublime
(d) proscribe
(e)splendid

Q7. Choose the word/group of words which is most SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage.

Scrabble
(a) Rummage
(b) ascribe
(c) murky
(d) rebuke
(e) rife

Directions (8-10): In the following question, a part of the sentence is given in bold; it is then followed by three sentences which try to explain the meaning of the phrase given in bold. Choose the best set of alternatives from the five options given below each question which explains the meaning of the phrase correctly without altering the meaning of the sentence given to the question.

Q8. The so-called nationalists are clearly off-target when they miss the point that patriotism arises from a genuine love of one’s country, having a stake in its welfare ~ it cannot be indoctrinated through symbolic gestures.

(I)The ones who call themselves nationalists are clearly off-target when they miss the point that patriotism arises from an unfeigned love of one’s country and having a stake in its welfare rather than persuading it through symbolic deeds.
(II)Most of the time the so-called nationalists miss the point that patriotism cannot be drilled through allusive acts rather it transpires from a true love of one’s country and being supportive in its prosperity.
(III)Any symbolic actions to prove patriotism cannot be considered a genuine love of one’s country and that’s what the so-called nationalists miss to make a point.

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q9. The Right to Education Act, which has not been as effective as initially envisaged in 2010, might well flounder on the rock of teaching ~ a cruel irony of what was once packaged as a fundamental entitlement.
(I)The Right to Education Act has not been as effective as initially anticipated in 2010 which might well work against the process of teaching, envisioning a cruel irony of what was once packaged as a fundamental entitlement.
(II)The Right to Education Act that was once packaged as a fundamental entitlement has not been as effective as initially envisaged in 2010 and might struggle ironically due to the teaching flaws.
(III)The Right to Education Act has given way to a cruel irony of what was once packaged as a fundamental entitlement owing to its ineffectiveness as envisioned in 2010 and might prosper the foundation of teaching in the process.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q10. Sometimes dreams are such a far cry from reality that they do make for somewhat entertaining cocktail party conversation.
(I)Dreams are intermittently illusory, framing somewhat entertaining cocktail party conversation.
(II)Sometimes dreams are so funny that they foster entertaining cocktail party conversation.
(III)Sometimes dreams are so much different from reality that they tend to result in somewhat entertaining cocktail party conversation.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Directions (11-14): The following question consists of a sentence which is divided into three parts which contain grammatical errors in one or more than one part of the sentence. If there is an error in any part of the sentence, find the correct alternatives to replace those parts from the three options given below each question to make the sentence grammatically correct. If there is an error in any part of the sentence and none of the alternatives is correct to replace that part, then choose (d), i.e., None of the (I), (II) and (III) as your answer. If the given sentence is grammatically correct or does not require any correction, choose (e), i.e., No correction required as your answer.

Q11. Water is in every sense a multi-dimensional resource (I)/requiring an understanding of many other discipline(II)/for its sustainable management. (III)
(I)Water that has been a multi-dimensional resource
(II)requiring an understanding of many other disciplines
(III)in its sustainable management

(a)Only (I)
(b)Only (II)
(c)Both (I) and (III)
(d)None of the (I), (II) and (III)
(e)No correction required

Q12. The Centre earns a large part of its own revenues not only in excise and customs duty (I)/on petro-products, while from cess on crude oil, (II)/from taxes on the profits of oil companies and dividend from oil PSUs. (III)
(I)The Centre earns a large part of its own revenues not only from excise and customs duty
(II)on petro-products, but also from cess on crude oil,
(III)in taxes on the profits of oil companies and dividend on oil PSUs

(a)Only (I)
(b)Both (II) and (III)
(c)Both (I) and (II)
(d)None of the (I), (II) and (III)
(e)No correction required

Q13. The uptick Amazon shares registered on Wall Street this Friday has directly affected (I)/ the fortune of its founder, Jeff Bezos, who immediately (II)/replaced Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates as the richest person in the world. (III)
(I)The uptick Amazon shares registered on Wall Street this Friday had directly effected
(II)the fortune of its founder, Jeff Bezos, who’s immediately
(III)replacing Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates as the richest person of the world

(a)Only (I)
(b)Only (II)
(c)Both (I) and (III)
(d)None of the (I), (II) and (III)
(e)No correction required

Q14. India’s biggest tax reform through date, the Goods and Service Tax, (I)/with its goal of “one nation, one tax”, (II)/ heralds a new age in India’s growth story. (III)
(I)India’s biggest tax reform till date, the Goods and Service Tax,
(II)with its goals of “one nation, one tax”,
(III)heralds a new age of India’s growth story

(a)Only (I)
(b)Both (I) and (III)
(c)All (I), (II) and (III)
(d)None of the (I), (II) and (III)
(e)No correction required

Direction (15): There are sets of four statements in question given below which when connected using the correct sentence structure forms a single complete sentence without altering the meaning of the sentences given in the question. There are four options given below the question, choose the sentence that forms the correct formation of a single sentence which is both grammatically correct and contextually meaningful. If none follows, choose (e) as your answer.

Q15. There is a decline in GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017-18;GDP is declined to 5.4 per cent, compared to 7.6 per cent during the same period in 2016-17;it is mainly because of a slowdown in the economy after the euphoria of a turnaround; it is causing sleepless nights to the government of Narendra Modi.

(a)There is a decline in GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017-18 to 5.4 per cent as compared to 7.6 per cent during the same period in 2016-17 which is mainly because of a slowdown in the economy after the euphoria of a turnaround that has caused sleepless nights to the government of Narendra Modi.
(b)Decline in GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017-18 to 5.4 per cent, compared to 7.6 per cent during the same period in 2016-17 mainly because of a slowdown in the economy after the euphoria of a turnaround is causing sleepless nights to the government of Narendra Modi.
(c)Because of a slowdown in the economy after the euphoria of a turnaround that is causing sleepless nights to the government of Narendra Modi, there is a decline in GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017-18 leading to 5.4 per cent after comparing it to 7.6 per cent during the same period in 2016-17.
(d)While there is a decline in GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017-18 up to 5.4 per cent when compared to 7.6 per cent during the same period in 2016-17, it has been causing sleepless nights to the government of Narendra Modi owing to the slowdown in the economy and the euphoria of a turnaround.
(e)None of the above is correct.

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Solutions

S1. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the fourth last sentence of the first paragraph “People feel more comfortable with something they can relate to and understand immediately without too much thought”.

S2. Ans. (b)
Sol. Refer the eighth sentence of the third paragraph “If he had used representational images and colour, much of the emotional content would have been lost and the piece would not have caused the demand for justice that it did.”

S3. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer the first few sentences of the second paragraph “People who look down on abstract art have several major arguments to support their beliefs. They feel that artists turn abstract because they are not capable of the technical drafting skills that appear in a Russell: therefore, such artists create an art form that anyone is capable of and that is less time consuming, and then parade it as artistic progress.”

S4. Ans. (c)
Sol. Refer the last two sentences of the third paragraph “This can be illustrated by Mondrian’s Trees series. You can actually see the progression from the early recognizable, though abstracted Trees, to his final solution, the grid system.”

S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. Refer the fourth paragraph.

S6. Ans. (d)
Sol. Denounce means publicly declare to be wrong or evil. Hence it has same meaning as proscribe.
Splendid means magnificent, very impressive.
Candid means truthful and straightforward, frank.
Sublime means of very great excellence or beauty.

S7. Ans. (a)
Sol. Scrabble means an act of scratching or scrambling for something. Hence it has same meaning as rummage.
Rebuke means express sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of their behaviour or actions.
Ascribe means regard something as being due to (a cause).
Rife means abundant.
Murky means dark and gloomy, especially due to thick mist.

S8. Ans. (c)
Sol. The phrase given in bold “it cannot be indoctrinated through symbolic gestures” implies that patriotism cannot be taught or shown through symbolic deeds. Thus among the three statements, statement (I) and (III) provide the exact and the most suitable meaning of the phrase in the context of its usage in the sentence. Hence (c) is the correct option. Statement (II) is incorrect as the word allusive means to contain suggestion rather than explicit mention whereas the whole issue is revolving around the propagandizing of patriotism.

S9. Ans. (b)
Sol. The word “flounder” in the phrase given in bold “might well flounder on the rock of teaching” means “be in serious difficulty.” Thus among the given three sentences, statements (I) and (III) can be eliminated as they give a vague and inappropriate meaning of the phrase to the sentences. However, only statement (II) provides the exact and the most suitable meaning of the phrase in the context of its usage in the sentence. Hence (b) is the correct choice.

S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. The phrase “far cry from reality” implies very different from reality.  Thus among the three given statements, only statements (I) and (III) provide the correct meaning of the phrase without altering the meaning of the actual sentence. The second statement gives a very different meaning to the phrase which is incorrect. Hence (d) is the correct choice.

S11. Ans. (b)
Sol. The first part of the sentence is grammatically correct, pointing towards a true statement. Thus it doesn’t require any correction. In the second part of the sentence, the word “discipline” should be replaced by “disciplines” as the phrase “many other” indicates that the noun it signifies should be in plural form. The third part of the sentence is grammatically correct and doesn’t require any correction. Hence (b) is the correct option.

S12. Ans. (c)
Sol. In the first part of the sentence, there is a minor error in the use of preposition “in” which should be replace by “from” to make the sentence grammatically correct. In the second part of the sentence, the connector “while” should be replaced by “but also” as the use of “not only” in the first part of the sentence indicates that it should be followed by “but also.” However, the third part of the sentence is grammatically correct and doesn’t require any correction. Hence (c) is the correct choice.

S13. Ans. (e)
Sol. The given sentence is grammatically correct and hence it doesn’t require any correction.

S14. Ans. (a)
Sol. In the first part of the sentence, the phrase “India’s biggest tax reform through date” should be replaced by “India’s biggest tax reform till date” as “till” is the correct preposition in this case. The second and the third parts of the sentence are grammatically correct and don’t require any correction. Hence (a) is the correct option.

S15. Ans. (b)
Sol. Among the four options, sentences (a), (c) and (d) are structurally or are grammatically incorrect and completely differ from the actual meaning of the sentence. However, sentence (b) adds meaning to the sentence as it follows the correct structure required to bring out the grammatically correct sentence. Hence (b) is the correct choice.

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