English Language Quiz For SBI Clerk Prelims 2021- 3rd May

Directions (1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Among the natural resources which can be called upon in national plans for development, possibly the most important is human labour. Without a productive labour force, including effective leadership and intelligent middle management, no amount of foreign assistance or of natural wealth can ensure successful development and modernization.

In this, one essential factor is usually overlooked or ignored. The forgotten factor is the role of women. Development will be handicapped as long as women remain second-class citizens, uneducated, without any voice in family or community decision, without legal or economic status, married when they are still practically children and thenceforth producing one baby after another, often only to see half of them die before they are of school age. We can enhance development by improving ‘woman power’ by giving women the opportunity to develop themselves.

The principle seems established that an educated mother has healthier and more intelligent children, and that this is related to the fact that she has fewer children. The tendency of educated, upper-class mother to have fewer children operates even without access to contraceptive services, as was noted in Western Europe before the turn of the Century.

If we examine the opportunities for education of girls or women in the less developed countries we usually find a dismal picture. In some countries the ratio of boys to girls in secondary schools is more than seven to one. In Afghanistan, Turkey and Tunisia most sizeable towns have some sort of dormitory for girls. Even at the primary school level, especially in rural areas, the number of boy students greatly exceeds that of girls.

What happens to the girls? Often they are kept at home to look after younger siblings and to perform a variety of domestic chores. Their education is not perceived as in any way equal in importance to that of boys. When an illiterate, or barely literate girl reaches adolescence, she has little or no qualification for employment, even if her community provides any opportunity for employment of women. So the solution is to get her married as soon as possible, with the inevitable result that she produces children ‘too soon, too late and too often.’ With no education she is hardly aware that there is any alternative. In a study made in Thailand, it was noted that the educated women marries later and ceases childbearing earlier than her less educated counterpart. But the uneducated village woman is so chained to her household by the necessities of gathering fuel, preparing food and tending children that she is very difficult to reach, even if health services, nutrition, education, maternal and child health centres are available in her community. She cannot understand what they are intended to do.

Not only does the lack of education among women make the dissemination of nutrition education difficult. It appears also to be a major obstacle to campaigns for family planning. It is significant that one of the more successful family planning efforts has been in Korea, where literacy is over 80 per cent. Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan have also had more satisfactory result than, for example, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India or Indonesia, where a large proportion of the female population is illiterate. The education level of women is significant also because it has a direct influence upon their chances of employment; and the number of employed women in a country’s total labour force has a direct bearing on both the Gross National Product and the disposable income of the individual family.

The specific courses of action necessary to raise the status of women must vary widely from one country to another, but in general they should be concerned with four main objectives which correspond with four areas of activity in the life of a woman. First, the school: girls must have equal educational opportunities, and their equal need for education must be recognized.

Second, the home: women must be provided with some respite from the incessant labour and the hazards and difficulties associated with domestic life under primitive conditions. This could take the form of improved housing, pare water supply, community mills, bakeries and laundries, and also the provision of day-care centres where younger children may be left while the mother undertakes other work, whether in the home or outside it.

Third, the community: women must be permitted to have a voice in the affairs, not only of the household, but also of the village or town. They must be involved in the conduct of schools, health centres and other matters of local concern. If the all-male society of the tea house or tavern cannot be reached, then associations and organizations of women must encouraged and their opinions and wishes granted equal attentions

Fourth, the law: The legal status of women must be changed or modified to give women equal rights in matters of marriage and divorce, property and inheritance, control over their own earnings, and a voice in local and national government.

Until women are given the opportunity to become ‘separate and complete’ human beings, their own potential for productivity is wasted. Until they become separate and complete human beings, they will perpetuate in their children those characteristics which are least conducive to development. Viewed in this light, the education of women and the improvement of their social, economic, legal and political status become more than the focus of an emotional crusade for human rights. They must be acknowledged as a prerequisite of national development and given a high priority for strictly practical reasons.

Q1. Which of the following is most important for the successful development and modernization of a nation?
(a) Natural wealth
(b) Effective leadership
(c) Foreign assistance
(d) Productive labour force
(e) None of the above

Q2. According to the passage educational opportunities are
(a) more for boys than girls in most countries
(b) same for boys and girls in developed countries
(c) less for girls than boys in developing countries
(d) not at all available for girls in developing countries
(e) None of the above

Q3. A village woman is unable to understand what different services are intended for because
(a) she is busy in rearing children.
(b) she gathers food.
(c) she is chained to her husband.
(d) she is uneducated.
(e) None of the above

Q4. Very often girls who stay at home
(a) spend their time studying.
(b) try their best to please their parents.
(c) have large number of domestic duties.
(d) prepare themselves for employment.
(e) None of the above

Q5. The main obstacle in the family planning campaign is
(a) unemployment among women
(b) lack of education among women
(c) objection from the community
(d) dissemination of nutrition education
(e) None of the above

Q6. Even if there are opportunities for employment, women do not usually get it because they
(a) are not educated.
(b) are inferior to men.
(c) do not want to work.
(d) produce children too often.
(e) None of the above

Q7. The education level of women is significant because it ultimately leads to
(a) increase in the family income
(b) increase in gross national product
(c) increase in their chance of employment
(d) increase in healthy children
(e) None of the above

Q8. Which of the following will make women ‘separate and complete human beings’?
(a) Employment
(b) Nutrition
(c) Human rights
(d) Education
(e) None of the above

Q9. “They will perpetrate in their children…………..” Here perpetuate means
(a) improve for use
(b) dissolve finely
(c) preserve forever
(d) persist long lastingly
(e) None of the above

Q10. According to the passage which type of women will perpetuate in their children those characteristics which are least conducive to development?
(a) Uneducated women
(b) Educated women
(c) Village women
(d) Unemployed women
(e) None of the above

Directions (11-15): In each question, there is a sentence with a part of the sentence printed in bold. Decide whether this bold part is correct and fits in the grammatical and contextual framework of the sentence. If it is to be changed, choose from option (a) to (d) to replace that part. If not, mark (e) as the answer i.e. ‘No change required’.

Q11. Except for you and I, everyone brought a present to the party.
(a) With the exception of you and I everyone brought
(b) Except for you and I, everyone had brought
(c) Except for you and me, everyone brought
(d) Exception of you and me, everyone had brought
(e) No change required

Q12. Had I realized how close I was to falling, I would not have gone to the party.
(a) If I would have realized how close
(b) Had I realize how close
(c) When I realized how close
(d) If I realized close
(e) No change required

Q13. If he was to decide to go to college, I for one, would recommend that he go to Yale University.
(a) If he were to decide to go to college.
(b) Had he decided to go to college
(c) In the event that he decides to go to college
(d) Supposing he was, to decide to go to college
(e) No change required

Q14. Being as I am a realist, I could not accept his statement that super natural beings has caused the disturbance.
(a) That I am a realist
(b) Being a realist
(c) Being that I am a realist
(d) Realist that I am
(e) No change required

Q15. He failed to carry over his instructions because they were not specific.
(a) in carrying forward
(b) to carry on
(c) carrying around
(d) to carry out
(e) No correction required

Solutions

S1. Ans.(d)
Sol. Refer the first paragraph, “Among the natural resources which can be called upon in national plans for development, possibly the most important is human labour.”

S2. Ans.(c)
Sol. Refer the fourth paragraph, “If we examine the opportunities for education of girls or women in the less developed countries we usually find a dismal picture. In some countries the ratio of boys to girls in secondary schools is more than seven to one. In Afghanistan, Turkey and Tunisia most sizeable towns have some sort of dormitory for girls.”

S3. Ans.(d)
Sol. A village woman is unable to understand what different services are intended for because she is uneducated.

S4. Ans.(c)
Sol. Refer beginning sentences of the fifth paragraph, “What happens to the girls? Often they are kept at home to look after younger siblings and to perform a variety of domestic chores.”

S5. Ans.(b)
Sol. Refer the second sentences of the sixth paragraph, “Not only does the lack of education among women make the dissemination of nutrition education difficult. It appears also to be a major obstacle to campaigns for family planning.”

S6. Ans.(a)
Sol. Refer the fourth sentences of the fifth paragraph, “What happens to the girls? Often they are kept at home to look after younger siblings and to perform a variety of domestic chores. Their education is not perceived as in any way equal in importance to that of boys. When an illiterate, or barely literate girl reaches adolescence, she has little or no qualification for employment, even if her community provides any opportunity for employment of women.”

S7. Ans.(b)
Sol. This is the ultimate result; others are direct ones. (Last sentence of the sixth paragraph)

S8. Ans.(d)
Sol. Education will make women ‘separate and complete human beings.

S9. Ans.(d)
Sol. Here perpetuate means preserve forever.

S10. Ans.(a)
Sol. According to the passage unemployment type of women will perpetuate in their children those characteristics which are least conducive to development.

S11. Ans.(c)
Sol. Replace ‘Except for you and I, everyone brought’ with ‘Except for you and me, everyone brought’.

S12. Ans.(a)
Sol. ‘Had I realized how close’ with ‘If I would have realized how close’.

S13. Ans.(a)
Sol. ‘If he was to decide to go to college’ with ‘If he were to decide to go to college.’

S14. Ans.(b)
Sol. ‘Being as I am a realist’ with ‘Being a realist’

S15. Ans.(d)
Sol. Replace ‘to carry over’ with ‘to carry out’

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