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English Quizzes for SBI Clerk Mains 2021 – 8th August

Directions (1-15): In the following questions, a sentence is given in bold. Then three paragraphs are given. From the given paragraphs you need to choose those that help us to infer the given bold sentence.

Q1. Business growth of the entities is thwacked due to liquidity crisis

(I) Bank lending for most housing finance companies has dried up and as a result, cost of funds for these lenders have gone up substantially. Some of the home loan companies have either defaulted on repayment or have deferred payment due to the liquidity crisis. According to a study by rating agency Crisil, growth of asset under management of housing finance companies halved in the second half of the 2018­19.

(II) The liquidity crisis post the IL&FS default has hit the assets under management (AUM) of Housing Finance Companies (HFC) and also curtailed their disbursements, a report by rating agency Crisil said, adding that it expects growth to revive to 12 per cent to 14 per cent for these companies in the current and next fiscal.
(III) Housing finance companies are expecting higher refinance limits from the National Housing Bank, in the Budget, to tide over the current liquidity crisis they are facing. Some of the mortgage lenders and business leaders have written to the Finance Ministry requesting that their proposal be considered, the chief executive officer of a housing finance company

(a) only II
(b) only I
(c) both II and III
(d) both I and III
(e) all I, II, III

Q2. Only traditional aid and government finance are not enough for the scale of the developmental challenge

(I) Traditional aid is often provided by means of supporting local development aid projects. In these projects, it sometimes occurs that no strict code of conduct is in force. In some projects, the development aid workers do not respect the local code of conduct. For example, the local dress code as well as social interaction. In developing countries, these matters are regarded highly important.

(II) Britain’s statements around severing of aid to middle-income countries including China and India created the impression that it had stopped all funding to the countries, when in fact the government is still giving both nations millions of pounds. Critics of UK aid often point out that India and China, which receive some UK aid, have active space exploration programmes.

(III) An estimated $7 billion has been spent under corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes run by government in the last four years until March 2019 in India. That is a substantial sum spent for development. Recently, Wipro’s Azim Premji also committed $7.5 billion to charity. The estimated investment gap that requires to be bridged to achieve our sustainable development goals (SDGs) worldwide is $2.5-3 trillion annually. This makes it imperative to unlock new funding sources, debt and equity, for development. It is in this context that one should look at the emergence and increasing use of social impact and development impact bonds (SIBs/DIBs).

(a) only II
(b) only III
(c) both II and III
(d) only I
(e) None of these

Q3. Cooperation between the centre and state is a must for agricultural reforms

(I) Nearly 70pc of subsidies, taxes and other financial transfers involving farmers come from policies that heavily distort markets, notably by creating an artificial gap between domestic and world prices, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development said in an annual survey of agriculture policy. After significant steps in the early 2000s to reduce subsidies supporting production and prices, which the OECD sees as wasteful and preventing structural investments in farming, reform progress “has largely stalled” in the past decade, it said in the report published this week.

(II) An expert committee on land leasing constituted by the NITI Aayog had come out with the Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016. Land leasing reforms, if carried out by state governments, will contribute immensely towards inclusive growth. However, it has been adopted fully in only a few states of India so far. Agriculture being a state subject, the central government formulates policy guidelines, advises, and allocates funds. Cooperation between the Centre and the states is a sine qua non for the expeditious implementation of reforms in the agriculture sector. Hence, a structured mechanism based on the philosophy of cooperative federalism is the need of the hour.

(III) The ‘Agriculture Export Policy, 2018’ seeks to double farm exports to $60 billion by 2022 from $30 billion last year, and will invest INR 1,400 crore to set up specialised clusters in different states for different produce to push exports. It also pushes for marketing reforms for doubling agricultural exports to $60+ billion by 2022.
(a) only II
(b) only I
(c) both II and III
(d) both I and III
(e) None of these

Q4. A blow-hot-blow-cold pattern marks almost all of Trump’s relations with countries the US is at odds with

(I) The trouble is not just Trump’s brazen disregard for international rules and past agreements, it is also the volatility that markets are made to suffer by all the frequent shifting of America’s stance. Financial markets around the world have been roiled on several occasions by a statement from Trump, only to find their assumptions outdated shortly afterwards.

(II) President Trump’s first steps on the global stage have sent shivers through the world. He is openly arguing with autocrats, while fighting a trade war with China and Europe and pulling out of international treaties. To many, his decisions are severely damaging the global standing of the US.

(III) Trumps talks with North Korea have bounced in every direction possible, and nobody knows if a deal is on its way to being struck or coming apart. On China, US trade negotiations had collapsed not long ago. Now Trump is ready to talk again, with the threat of slapping a 25% tariff on some $300 billion worth of imports from the People’s Republic kept aside—for the moment.
(a) only II
(b) only III
(c) both II and III
(d) both I and III
(e) None of these

Q5. Humans have lost the ability to press the correct action button owing to the usage of machines

(I) Automated systems are improving so rapidly that they will soon be able to do everything we can and more. Despite this, we still feel the need to always have a human in the loop—to take over in case something untoward happens. We do this because we believe that humans will always be able to apply some instinctual intelligence to find solutions where machines can’t.

(II) Reliance on automation has led to disaster in many situations. There have been people who have trusted their navigation systems so implicitly that, despite the evidence of their eyes, they have driven their cars off cliffs or into inhospitable deserts without so much as a raised eyebrow. We are so accustomed to turn-by-turn navigation that we’ve lost the art of finding our way by looking for waypoints and landmarks along the way.

(III) The pilots, in accordance with standard procedure, switched the flight to autopilot within four minutes of take-off. The computer, which had been programmed to hand over control to human pilots when it didn’t have enough data to safely fly the plane, disengaged itself from the controls after telling the pilots that they would have to fly it like a conventional aircraft. Which is why, a pilot who, until now had rarely ever flown the plane at any time other than take-off and landing, had to suddenly take control of the aircraft mid-flight. Based on flight recorder evidence, his inexperience began to show almost immediately: The plane began rocking from side to side and then inexplicably went into a steep climb and crashed.
(a) only II
(b) only I
(c) both II and III
(d) both I and III
(e) None of these

Q6. Coaching institutions undermine mainstream education and impose a huge cost on students

(I) Rising aspirations, combined with the falling quality of mainstream education, have meant that examination-oriented tuitions have taken over the lives of most school and college students in India. The coaching industry also generates employment. However, since it is unregulated and unorganised for the most part, it is difficult to estimate exactly how many people are employed in this line of work.

(II) Coaching institutions are imposing a huge emotional cost to society. They crush creativity. In most cases, they only help a student to swiftly secure marks in some entrance exam. To signal merit, exams are only one criterion, and not necessarily the best one. So, coaching institutions exist to help people achieve only one idea of merit. They do not enhance human capital. Confining students in classrooms and making them study subjects they often hate destroys their natural talent. Hence, the social cost of these institutions outweighs their benefit by far.

(III) In May, a deadly fire at a coaching centre in Surat snuffed out 22 young lives. The rate of suicides in Kota, where many students converge to prepare for entrance exams, remains high. And yet, the coaching industry is rapidly growing. Data from the National Sample Survey Office’s 71st round reveal that more than a quarter of Indian students take private coaching. Also, it is providing with the information regarding employment in this sector.

(a) Only (i)
(b) Only (ii)
(c) Only (iii)
(d) Both (i) and (iii)
(e) None of these.

Q7. Capital infusion is the key reason in improvement of capital of banks

(I) In its latest monetary policy report, the RBI said recapitalisation of public sector banks and the ongoing improvement in their financials, and resolution of stressed assets under the insolvency and bankruptcy code are expected to improve bank credit offtake and support investment and aggregate demand.

(II) With the number of banks having more than 20% gross NPAs coming down in March 2019, RBI said this implied a broader improvement in asset quality. Credit growth of public sector banks were at 9.6% while private lendsers continue to robust growth of 21%. Overall credit growth marginally improved to 13.2% in March 2019 from 13.1% in September 2018.

(III) Following infusion by the government in public sector banks, the overall capital ratio of commercial banks ameliorated from 13.7% in September 2018 to 14.3% in March 2019, with state-run banks’ CAR ameliorating from 11.3% to 12.2% during the period. However, there was a marginal decline in the CAR of private sector banks.

(a) Only (i)
(b) Only (ii)
(c) Only (iii)
(d) Both (i) and (iii)
(e) None of these.

Q8. The new bankruptcy code yields its first success, but many wrinkles remain.

[I] The Finance Ministry now expects banks to recover more than ₹1 lakh crore from the resolution of the other cases referred by the RBI to the NCLT. If the banks do indeed recover funds of this scale, it would considerably reduce the burden on taxpayers, who would otherwise have to foot the bill for any recapitalisation of banks.

[II] The resolution of case of Bhushan Steel, should not deflect attention from the many challenges still plaguing the bankruptcy resolution process. The IBC, as the government itself has admitted, remains a work in progress. This is a welcome piece of legislation to the extent that it subsumes a plethora of laws that confused creditors; instead it now offers a more streamlined way to deal with troubled assets. But issues such as the proposed eligibility criteria for bidders have left it bogged down and suppressed its capacity to help out creditors efficiently.

[III] The strict time limit for the resolution process as mandated by the IBC is an area that has drawn much attention, and it merits further review in order to balance the twin objectives of speedy resolution and maximising recovery for the lenders. To its credit, the government has been willing to hear out suggestions.

(a) Only [III]
(b) Both [I] & [III]
(c) Only [II]
(d) Both [I] & [II]
(e) All [I], [II], [III]

Q9. Slide of the currency and a widening trade deficit present the RBI with a huge dilemma

[I] India’s macroeconomic threats lie exposed as it grapples with the rupee’s slide. The currency sunk to a closing low of 68.07 against the U.S. dollar, its lowest level in 16 months. Meanwhile, despite a depreciating currency, India’s merchandise exports are stumbling instead of gaining from the opportunity. A hike in the RBI’s benchmark interest rates could stem the capital exodus, but with core inflation picking up and the government keen on a rate cut as a growth catalyst, the RBI has an unenviable dilemma on its hands.

[II] The trade deficit has consequently widened to $13.7 billion in April, compared to $13.25 billion in the same month in 2017. The value of oil and petroleum product imports increased by 41.5% from last year to hit $10.4 billion. U.S. sanctions following Washington’s withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and a June 22 meeting of OPEC should drive oil price trends hereon. Oil prices apart, the tightening of U.S. monetary policy has almost always spelled trouble for emerging market economies hooked to Western capital inflows.

[III] The Indian rupee has been one of the worst performing major emerging market (EM) currencies in 2018, and the worst in Asia-Pacific. A Mint analysis shows that the rupee’s troubles can be traced back to concerns about India’s rising current account deficit. Given that the current account deficit is likely to remain under pressure, the rupee is likely to remain weak for some time, raising external funding costs for Indian firms even as it feeds into domestic inflation.

(a) Only [II]
(b) Only [I]
(c) Both (I) and (III)
(d) Both (II) and (III)
(e) None of these

Q10. The Windrush scandal marks another episode in Europe’s hardening politics on immigration.

[I] EU citizens elect the European Parliament and participate in its work, thus exercising treaty rights, enhancing Union democracy, and reinforcing its citizenship. Noting the ECJ’s view of Union citizenship as a ‘fundamental status’ of nationals of Member States, and that Brexit will strip millions of EU citizens of this status and their vote in European elections, requests the Commission propose means to avoid risk of collective loss of EU citizenship and rights, and assure all EU citizens that, once attained, such status is permanent and their rights acquired.

[II] EU nationals risk being caught in a repeat of the Windrush immigration scandal unless the Home Office makes urgent changes to its post-Brexit “settled status” scheme, a UK parliament committee has warned. The programme — which has been in operation for nearly two months and received over 600,000 applications — is intended to guarantee the legal rights of over 3.5m EU citizens who are resident in the UK after Britain leaves the bloc. The problems faced by the Windrush generation showed how easily individuals can fall through gaps in the system through no fault of their own and how easily lives can be destroyed if the government gets this wrong

[III] The scandal over the targeting of Britons of Caribbean origin is the latest twist in Europe’s recent politics over immigration, denting the continent’s image as being open, liberal and tolerant. The Windrush generation, named after one of the many vessels that ferried some half a million people from the Caribbean islands to the U.K. in the late 1940s, has fallen victim to a ruthless policy that stipulates annual net immigration objectives. In its wake, people with cultural links to the region but who have lived all their lives in the U.K. are having to provide proof of residence for every year of their stay of up to 60-70 years.

(a) Only (III)
(b) Only (I)
(c) Both (II) and (III)
(d) Both (I) and (III)
(e) None of these

Q11. China’s famed model of growth is under pressure due to fall in exports and investment
[I] China’s quarterly GDP numbers, while useful in many ways, don’t reveal very much about the underlying challenges facing the country. One is the need to improve the credibility of data released by the Chinese government. The high-growth years of the Chinese economy were made possible by the huge amount of liquidity provided by the Chinese state and the large and affordable workforce that helped build China into an export powerhouse.
[II] The Chinese economy is seeing the first signs of trouble after long years of sustained growth that rode on cheap labour and high volumes of exports. Data released by the National Bureau of Statistics on Monday revealed that the economy grew by 6.2% in the second quarter, its slowest pace in 27 years. The faltering growth rate was due to a slump in exports in June amidst China’s ongoing trade war with the United States and the downturn witnessed by sectors such as housing construction, where investor sentiments play a major role.
[III] Many economists believe that the worst may not yet be over for China and that economic growth could further worsen in the coming quarters. But just as growth seems to be faltering, the latest growth figures also showed that the retail sales and industrial output components of the growth numbers witnessed steady growth, suggesting that domestic demand may be compensating for the dropping appetite for Chinese exports weighed down by high tariffs.
(a) Only [III]
(b) Only [I]
(c) Only [II]
(d) Both [I] & [III]
(e) None of these

Q12. The forecast is optimistic, but changing monsoon trends are a challenge.
[I] The most recent assessment put out by the India Meteorological Department, that the southwest monsoon will be “normal” after a short break, comes as a relief. At the end of two months the total rainfall has met the criteria for ‘normality,’ although there are wide variations in the patterns of showers, leaving some districts hit by drought as others face floods. Altered rainfall trends in terms of intensity and variations across regions pose a new challenge. A future-ready approach should therefore focus on augmented storage and greater participation of the farming community in managing the vital resource.
[II] India Meteorological Department has released its Monsoon Forecast to be near normal at 96 percent of the Long Period Average (LPA) with a model error of +/- 5%. IMD has also mentioned that these rains will be quite beneficial to the farmers in the country during the kharif season. Scientists contend that the alluvial soil of the northern States benefit more from slow precipitation, while the hard-rock geography of the south needs heavy showers for groundwater recharge. Yet, many districts have been receiving short, heavy spells and not steady rain. This indicates a change in the monsoon pattern.
[III] The IMD has issued a “normal” outlook for August, which is encouraging, and there are signs of fresh monsoon activity in Odisha, south Chhattisgarh, north coastal Andhra Pradesh and parts of Telangana. If the forecast is accurate, and the trends of favourable climate conditions in the Indian Ocean continue, a further normal course of the season through September can be expected.
(a) Both [II] & [III]
(b) Both [I] & [III]
(c) Only [III]
(d) Only [I] and (II)
(e)All [I], [II], [III]

Q13. The health emergency declared by the WHO can counter the risk of a global spread
[I] The spread of Ebola to Congo’s neighbour Uganda last month did not seem to change the way the WHO assessed the situation. Even when a handful of Ebola cases were confirmed in Uganda, all the infected people had travelled from Congo and there had been no local transmission or spread within Uganda — one of the criteria used by the WHO to assess if an outbreak is a global emergency. This is the fifth time that the WHO has declared a global emergency. The global emergency now declared may probably bring in the funding and control further spread of the virus.
[II] After holding itself back on three occasions, the World Health Organization has declared the Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. While cases in other areas are reducing, Beni is the new hotspot. The announcement of the health emergency comes amid renewed concerns that the virus could spread to other countries. A single imported case of Ebola in Goma, a city in Congo with two million people and with an international airport bordering Rwanda, served as a trigger to finally declare a global emergency. Declaring an event as a global emergency is meant to stop the spread of the pathogen to other countries and to ensure a coordinated international response.
[III] Though the vaccine has not been licensed in any country, the ring vaccination strategy where people who come into contact with infected people, as well as the contacts of those contacts are immunised, has helped. Of the nearly 94,000 people at risk who were vaccinated till March 25, 2019, only 71 got infected compared with 880 unvaccinated who got infected. The vaccine had 97.5% efficacy; a majority of those who got infected despite being vaccinated were high-risk contacts.
(a) Only [I]
(b) Only [II]
(c) Both [II] & [III]
(d) Both [I] & [II]
(e) None of these

Q14. Policymakers must address the structural problems behind the NBFCs crisis.
[I] The precipitous crash of shares of Dewan Housing Finance Ltd. has been the defining moment of the present crisis. It is worth noting that the rise of NBFCs was fuelled primarily by the demise of traditional banks which have been unable to lend as they were bogged down by non-performing loans. Meanwhile, NBFCs with strong pricing power, which can somehow successfully achieve the transfer of higher borrowing rates to their own borrowers, may still survive rising interest rates.
[II] The default of Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (IL&FS) on several of its debt obligations over the last couple of months has raised serious questions about how regulators missed the growing debt pile of a systemically important financial institution. But apart from the obvious failure of regulators to do their jobs, the IL&FS saga has also exposed the underlying weaknesses in the non-banking financial company (NBFC) sector as a whole. The response of policymakers to the ongoing crisis, which seems warranted if its purpose is to prevent a wider systemic crisis, is fraught with other risks. Policymakers should focus on steps necessary to widen the borrower base of NBFCs which have been banned from accepting deposits.
[III] The Reserve Bank of India, the National Housing Bank and the State Bank of India last week decided to increase the supply of liquidity in the market to keep interest rates under control. The RBI has also urged NBFCs to make use of equity rather than debt to finance their operations. This is apart from the government’s decision to replace IL&FS’s management and commitment to providing the company with sufficient liquidity.
(a) Both [I] & [II]
(b) All [I], [II], [III]
(c) Only [I]
(d) Only [II]
(e) None of these

Q15. The water crisis in Chennai needs holistic and widely resonant solutions.
[I] Chennai’s aspirations to grow into a global economic hub appear considerably weakened as it struggles to find water. The shadow of drought from 2018 has stretched into the torrid summer this year, evaporating not just the city’s reservoirs, but the prosperity of its residents who are forced to hunt for tankers, pay bribes and spend hours even at night waiting for trucks to dispense some water. A time-bound plan is needed to augment the resources in the Greater Chennai region encompassing the neighbouring districts of Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram.
[II] The government made rainwater harvesting mandatory quite early, but failed to follow it up with an institutional mechanism to help citizens implement it. The government should give monetary incentives to NGOs, as NITI Aayog proposed in its Water Index report, to encourage them to install systems and show quantifiable recharge outcomes. On the consumer side, devices and practices to reduce wastage should be promoted, especially on commercial premises.
[III] Given the large base of tanks and reservoirs in Greater Chennai — over 4,000 waterbodies of significance — prudent rainfall management can help it through withering summers and weak monsoons. A white paper with a full assessment of these wetlands and their storage potential should be a priority for the State’s Sustainable Water Security Mission. Deepening storage in the four major reservoirs must get priority. Such a project must quantify the increase in storage and set an early deadline of a year.

(a) Only [I]
(b) Only [II]
(c) Both [I] & [III]
(d) Both [II] & [III]
(e) All [I], [II], [III]


S1. Ans. (e)
Sol. Thwacked means “strike forcefully with a sharp blow; hit”, so, the sentence given becomes, “Business growth of the entities is hit due to liquidity crisis”. The statement (I) clearly tells that the banks lending for housing financing companies has been vanished and the cost of funds for these businesses have gone up. These home financing businesses have defaulted away. All this happened because of the liquidity crisis. So, statement (I) is correct.
As, for the statement (II), it is given that the IL&FS crisis led to liquidity crisis which impacted the growth of HFCs. Therefore, the given inference can be driven from the paragraph (II).
In the statement (III), the housing finance companies are hit by liquidity crisis. They are asking the finance minister to increase the refinance limits from the NHB. Thus, this paragraph can be used to infer the given sentence.
Hence, option (e) is the correct answer choice.

S2. Ans. (b)
Sol. From the given paragraphs, only the (III) paragraph can be used to infer the given sentence. About $14.5 billion are spent for development but still there is about $2.5-3 trillion required to achieve the SDGs. So, to achieve this target new funding sources are required like SIBs/DIBs.
As for the other two paragraphs, the (II) paragraph tells that the UK government has stopped the aid to middle income countries. Nothing is mentioned about the insufficiency of the traditional aid to achieve the development. So, this paragraph is irrelevant as per the given sentence.
For the (I) paragraph the information given is about traditional aid and the problem with it. But nothing is mentioned about development goals. Therefore, this paragraph can’t be used as well.
Thus, option (b) is correct answer choice.

S3. Ans. (a)
Sol. Federalism means “the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system.” So, the sentence given means that central and state governments should together work to bring reforms in agriculture sector.
In the (I) paragraph the survey information of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is given which is irrelevant as per the given sentence.
The paragraph (II) discusses about the relief benefits provided by the Indian government for crop losses and damages caused by natural calamities. The state governments should work with centre to provide the benefits to the farmers. The given sentence can be easily inferred from the given paragraph (II).
As for paragraph (III) the Agri Export Policy is discussed and nothing is discussed about reforms.
Thus, paragraph (II) is correct and hence, option (a) is correct answer choice.

S4. Ans. (b)
Sol. The idiom “blow-hot-blow-cold” means “to be sometimes interested in something and sometimes not”. And “at odds with” means “quarrelling or not agreeing with.” So, the given sentence means that Trump is acting in a blow hot and cold way with the various countries. Only the paragraph (III) can be used to infer the given sentence. The deal with North Korea is uncertain. As well, the trade negotiations between China and US had collapsed not long ago, but now Trump is ready to talk again.
The paragraph (II) discusses about the various steps of trump that are damaging the relations of US with the world.
The paragraph (I) explains that because of the actions of Trump the markets are suffering.
Hence, option (b) is correct answer choice

S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. The paragraph (I) discusses about the need of human in spite of automation.
The paragraph (II) tells us that human rely on automated systems unnecessarily. Sometimes, this technology oriented approach leads to disastrous situations. So, humans must know when to use these automated systems.
For paragraph (III), a situation is given about a crash that happened because of the automation errors. The automation system of the plane shifted the controls to the pilots. And pilots didn’t have the knowledge to fly the plane. Hence, the plane crashed. In normal situation, autopilot used to fly the plan. So, pilots didn’t have the knowledge to fly the plane and relied on the autopilot. Which, in this case resulted in a disaster.
Therefore, paragraphs (II) and (III) can be used to infer the given sentence. Hence, option (c) is correct answer choice.

S6. Ans. (b)
Sol. Going through the options, we can see that option (I) is talking about the reason for the rise in the examination oriented tuitions or coaching. So from this, first part of the statement can be inferred but it fails to provide any fact supporting the second part of the given statement.
The second option seems appropriate answer choice because there is mention of emotional demerits and loss of creativity in the students. Also, the given passage is highlighting that coaching institutes only focus on securing marks in some entrance exam only which is opposite to the idea of main stream education which means practice of placing students with special education services in a general education classroom during specific time periods based on their skills. Hence, the given statement can be clearly inferred from this option.
Option (III) is discussing about the rise in the coaching industry even with so many ruinous events that occurred in the past.
So the most appropriate answer choice is option (b)

S7. Ans. (d)
Sol. The given statement can be inferred from the first and third paragraphs. In the first paragraph it is clearly mentioned that recapitalization of the PSB is expected to improve the bank credit which is similar to the Capital Adequacy Ratio. Also, in option (III), ameliorating means make something better. So the given statement can be inferred easily from the given statements. Hence, the correct answer choice is option (d)

S8. Ans. (c)
Sol. Among the given paragraphs, only the second paragraph justifies the inference mentioned above. The paragraph clearly states the resolution of Bhushan Steel under IBC and further it mentions the shortcomings that still prevail within the system. The other two paragraphs provide incomplete information in context of the inference. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S9. Ans. (b)
Sol. Here, only the first paragraph justifies the inference mentioned above. The second paragraph mention the trade deficit faced by India but there is no mention of the fall in currency value and RBI’s stance. Similarly, the third paragraph provides incomplete information in context of the inference. Hence, option (b) is the most suitable answer choice.

S10. Ans. (c)
Sol. The inference given above can be justified in both paragraph [II] and [III]. Both the paragraphs illustrate how ruthless Windrush scandal has become a political tool and marks the weaknesses of European government. The first paragraph provides irrelavant information in context of the inference. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. Among the paragraphs given above, only paragraph [II] clearly justifies the given inference. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S12. Ans. (d)
Sol. Among the given paragraphs, only the information provided in paragraph [I] and (II) clearly justify the inference mentioned above. Also, the (III) paragraph only satisfy the former part of the given inference and have no reference with the latter part. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S13. Ans. (d)
Sol. Among the given paragraphs, both the paragraphs [I] and [II] clearly justify the given inference. They mention the spread of Ebola virus and WHO’s declaration of global health emergency which may help curb the spreading of virus. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S14. Ans. (d)
Sol. Here, only the paragraph [II] satisfies the given inference as it clearly mentions the NBFC crisis and the drawbacks in the NBFC sector as a whole. Also, it further suggests the role of policymakers in addressing the issue. The other two paragraphs only mention about the crisis and have no discussion regarding addressing the drawbacks. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S15. Ans. (c)
Sol. Here, the paragraphs [I] & [III] clearly justify the given inference as they mention the water crisis in Chennai and the steps needs for Chennai to recover from the loss. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

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