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English Quizzes, for SBI/IBPS PO Mains 2021 – 23rd December

Directions (1-5): Read each of the following four sentences to find out whether there is any grammatical mistake/error in it. Choose the sentence with grammatical error as the correct answer. If all the given sentences are grammatically correct then choose “All are correct”.

Q1. (a) There is little doubt that China is there to stay in the Maldives, and a balancing agreement will have to emerge through the plethora of commercial contracts the new government would ideally like to renegotiate.
(b) Prime Minister Imran Khan’s administration has capitulated to pressure from extremists, who blocked roads in Islamabad for three days, demanding a reversal of Wednesday’s verdict.
(c) The increase in GST collections comes at a time when the Centre has been unable to control its spending in the run-up to the general election due by next summer.
(d) Given the current pervasive of decoherence and other errors, contemporary quantum computers are unlikely to return correct answers for programs of even modest execution time.
(e) All are correct

Q2. (a) Chancellor Merkel’s decision to stand down as leader of the Christian Democratic Union, after leading it for 18 years, was triggered by its poor show in recent regional elections.
(b) The implications for the EU from the unfolding transition in Germany are immense, given Berlin’s leadership role over the decades, alongside Paris, in shaping the course of European integration.
(c) Air pollution is choking several cities in the northern States once again, as changes in temperature and slowing winds trap soot, dust and fine particulate matter.
(d) Farm stubble burning is a major contributor to the problem, and its footprint may be growing because of wider use of mechanical harvesters that is producing more waste.
(e) All are correct

Q3. (a) Her colleagues in the Conservative Party remain deeply divided over the terms of the Withdrawal Agreement she negotiated with the European Union and have rejected three times her attempts to get it passed in Parliament.
(b) The image, which went viral and altered the manner in which people worldwide imagine what it is to scale Mt. Everest, showed a long queue awaiting a final tilt at the summit, with all the dangers such a wait holds.
(c) The military then took over and established the Transitional Military Council (TMC), to the dismay of protesters, who have continued to call for a civilian-lead government.
(d) No matter how the politics of this troubled nation turns, it is the resolution of Brexit as a struggle between nativist impulses and the existing liberal order that the world is watching.
(e) All are correct

Q4. (a) Beyond suspending a few officials and filing cases against the building owners, there is a need to make an example of sanctioning and enforcement authorities.
(b) In 1791, 1 kg was defined as the mass of one litre of distilled water at its melting point.
(c) The IMD bulletin stated, “Conditions are becoming favourable for the southwest monsoon to advance into some parts of the northeast states in the next 48 hours.”
(d) The Surat fire cannot be called an accident, since there are reports of notices having been served to the builder on the risks, but not pursued by the Fire Department.
(e) All are correct

Q5. (a) Waiting in sub-zero temperatures at the rarefied altitude can be fatal — this season’s deaths were mostly due to frostbite, exhaustion, dehydration and lack of oxygen.
(b) The adventure industry that is built around the human desire to scale the peak has meant many amateurs take up the challenge, confident that support teams and specialised equipment will make up for their lack of adequate mountaineering experience.
(c) From time to time he’d drop up through the curtains, probably to reload, and then come back to loose off another magazine.
(d) The deadly fire in a Surat coaching centre that resulted in the death of 22 young people highlights the gap between India’s dreamy visions of smart cities and the cruel reality of urban chaos and lawlessness.
(e) All are correct

Directions (6-10): Read the following passage and answer the following questions based on the given passage.

After a period of relative weakness, the South Korean economy has lately grown more strongly, driven in part by a rebound in exports and investment. The rebound has been fueled mainly by strong global demand, especially for electronics. Real gross domestic product (GDP) in South Korea was up 1.1 percent in the first quarter of 2018 compared to the fourth quarter of 2017. Domestic demand remains good, with nearly full employment driving an increase in wages. Retail sales volume was up a strong 7 percent in March versus a year earlier.  Also, the recent substantial increase in the legal minimum wage (up 16.4 percent in 2017 from the 2016 level) should help consumer spending, though it might have a modest chilling effect on hiring. That could be especially problematic given that the country currently has a relatively high rate of youth unemployment.

The central bank did start to tighten the policy in November for the first time in six years, but given the low level of inflation, it is likely that further moves will be very gradual at the most. If the US Federal Reserve raises its benchmark rate substantially in the coming year, capital outflows from South Korea could accelerate, putting downward pressure on the won. If that happens, the South Korean central bank could decide to tighten the monetary policy faster. Nonetheless, the bank might decide that a declining currency could be beneficial to exports while not necessarily boosting inflation significantly.

On the negative side, there has been a slowdown in the growth of industrial production, with output actually declining in five of the last seven months. It appears that export orders have lately weakened. If this persists, there could be a negative impact on growth in the coming year.

The National Assembly has passed a bill that could substantially boost spending this year. This should have a positive impact on economic activity, if not this year then certainly in 2019. Unlike neighboring Japan or European countries, South Korea managed to obtain a permanent exemption from US tariffs on steel and aluminum by agreeing to a quota on exports. Nonetheless, South Korea could suffer negative consequences if the US-China trade war became fierce. About 25 percent of South Korea’s exports are destined for China. In addition, the new US tariffs on washing machines were mostly targeted at South Korea. The South Korea-US free trade agreement, known as KORUS, remains vulnerable to the US trade policy, especially as South Korea continues to run a trade surplus with the United States. The United States views such surpluses unfavorably.

Q6. What could be the effect of US-China trade war on South Korea?

(a) Household debt could rise faster than household income, despite government efforts to stem the rise in debt
(b) Considering the fall youth population and the ongoing trade war, a declining working-age population will likely exacerbate the challenge of supporting an aging population
(c) South Korea’s major exports being targeted to Chinese market could attract sanctions from US.
(d) Although the current level of debt is not necessarily problematic, given low interest rates and low unemployment, a change in these factors could create challenges for the country’s banking system.
(e) None of these

Q7. Under what situations could the South Korean central bank tighten the monetary policy?

(a) If American and South Korean negotiators are at odds over what to include in a prospective trade deal
(b) In case US central bank increases the benchmark rate considerably
(c) In case US fails to address the trade barriers between two countries
(d) If America imposes tiff trade tariffs on the imports of aluminum and steel
(e) None of these

Q8. What have been the effects of rebound of South Korean economy?

(i) The real GDP in South Korea increased by 1.1 per cent
(ii) The wages had increased with nearly full employment in South Korea
(iii) The retail sales had seen a drop

(a)Only (i)
(b)Only (ii)
(c)Only (iii)
(d) Both (i) & (ii)
(e) All (i), (ii), (iii)

Q9. How has been the status of South Korea different from its neighboring countries when seen in context of trade with US?

(a) In contrast to its neighbours South Korean companies have shifted operations to lower-wage locations
(b) Unlike Japan and European Union South Korea has been successful in curbing the growing inflation
(c) Unlike its neighboring countries, South Korea has managed to obtain permanent exemption from US tariffs in steel and aluminum on the grounds of specified quota on exports.
(d) Both (b) & (c)
(e) None of these

Q10. Choose the word similar to “VULNERABLE” as highlighted in the passage given above.
(a) sanguine
(b)disparate
(c) Unfortified
(d) unconscionable
(e) errant

Solutions

S1. Ans. (d)
Sol. Here, the error lies in the statement given in option (d), where, “pervasive” [adjective] will be replaced by “pervasiveness” [noun] because wherever the sentence follows the structure of “article+______+preposition”, we will place a noun between them not an adjective. Hence, option (d) is the most suitable answer choice.

S2. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the statements given above are grammatically correct and therefore do not require any correction. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

S3. Ans. (c)
Sol. Here, the error lies in the statement given in option (c), where, we will replace “lead” with “led”. Whenever we mention about someone leading the government, we never use “lead” before government and will instead use “ led government” as the correct phrase. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S4. Ans. (c)
Sol. Here, the error lies in statement given in option (c), where “northeast” will be replaced with “northeastern”. Here, “states”, which is a noun will be preceded by an adjective [northeastern] instead of a noun [northeast]. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S5. Ans. (c)
Sol. Here, the error lies in statement given in option (c), where there is an error of phrasal verb. Here, “drop up” which means “to visit a place that is north of one’s current location” will be replaced with “drop back” which means “fall back or get left behind”. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S6. Ans. (c)
Sol. To validate the answer, refer to the last paragraph of the passage given above, which mentions, “Nonetheless, South Korea could suffer negative consequences if the US-China trade war became fierce. About 25 percent of South Korea’s exports are destined for China. In addition, the new US tariffs on washing machines were mostly targeted at South Korea.” So from the given statement it can be inferred that US may impose sanctions South Korea under its ongoing trade war with China.

S7. Ans. (b)
Sol. To validate the answer, refer to the second paragraph of the passage given above, which mentions, “If the US Federal Reserve raises its benchmark rate substantially in the coming year, capital outflows from South Korea could accelerate, putting downward pressure on the won.” Here, we can infer the quoted text from the statement given in option (b). Hence, option (b) is the most suitable answer choice.

S8. Ans. (d)
Sol. Refer to the first paragraph of the passage given above, which mentions, “Real gross domestic product (GDP) in South Korea was up 1.1 percent in the first quarter of 2018 compared to the fourth quarter of 2017. Domestic demand remains good, with nearly full employment driving an increase in wages. Retail sales volume was up a strong 7 percent in March versus a year earlier. Also, the recent substantial increase in the legal minimum wage (up 16.4 percent in 2017 from the 2016 level) should help consumer spending, though it might have a modest chilling effect on hiring.” Here, we can infer the quoted text from (i) and (ii) whereas statement (iii) contradicts the information. Hence, option (d) becomes the most suitable answer choice.

S9. Ans. (c)
Sol. Referring to the third paragraph, which mentions, “Unlike neighboring Japan or European countries, South Korea managed to obtain a permanent exemption from US tariffs on steel and aluminum by agreeing to a quota on exports”, the statement given in option (c) clearly justifies the quoted text. Hence, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.

S10. Ans. (c)
Sol. “VULNERABLE” means “exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally” and “UNFORTIFIED” means “vulnerable to attacks”. Since, they are synonymous with each other, option (c) is the most suitable answer choice.
Unconscionable: unreasonable; unscrupulous; excessive
Errant: to be wandering; not sticking to a circumscribed path
Disparate: two things are fundamentally different
Sanguine: cheerful; optimistic

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