States and Capitals of India 2021: India is a vast country and well known for its culture. It lies in the southern Asia. It is seventh largest country and the second populated country in the world. India is unique by its unity in diversity, and has accommodated many cultures, religions and languages. There are total 28 States and 8 Union Territories at present in India. The Governor of states are the head of executive. Each State is ruled by the Chief Ministers. Today, in this article, we are going to discuss about the States and Capitals of India.
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States and Capitals Of India
What is a State?
State is an independent unit which consist of its own legislative assembly and elected representatives. All the states have its own separate government, legislative assembly and has its own Chief Minister. The Functions of the states are handled by the State Government such as security, healthcare, governance, revenue generation, etc.
How many states in India?
India is a federal constitutional republic, governed by the parliamentary system and is known as the world’s most populous democracy. Earlier there were 28 states and 8 Union Territories but the Government Of India revoked article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir and declared it as a union territory along with Ladakh. After the implementation of the decision, currently, there are 28 states and 8 Union Territories as Daman & Diu is merged with Dadar and Nagar Haveli. Below we have discussed the detailed information about the lists of States and Capitals of India.
Also, read: List of Prime Ministers of India From 1947-2021
List of States and Capitals Of India
As mentioned above, currently there are 28 States and 8 Union Territories are there in India, so we are providing the detailed information about the states of India with its foundation date and capitals in the table mentioned below.
States of India and their Capitals
|S.No||States Name||Capital||Founded on|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||Hyderabad (Proposed Capital Amaravati)||1 Nov. 1956|
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||Itanagar||20 Feb. 1987|
|3||Assam||Dispur||26 Jan. 1950|
|4||Bihar||Patna||26 Jan. 1950|
|5||Chhattisgarh||Raipur||1 Nov. 2000|
|6||Goa||Panaji||30 May. 1987|
|7||Gujarat||Gandhinagar||1 May. 1960|
|8||Haryana||Chandigarh||1 Nov. 1966|
|9||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||25 Jan. 1971|
|10||Jharkhand||Ranchi||15 Nov. 2000|
|11||Karnataka||Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore)||1 Nov. 1956|
|12||Kerala||Thiruvananthapuram||1 Nov. 1956|
|13||Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal||1 Nov. 1956|
|14||Maharashtra||Mumbai||1 May. 1960|
|15||Manipur||Imphal||21 Jan. 1972|
|16||Meghalaya||Shillong||21 Jan. 1972|
|17||Mizoram||Aizawl||20 Feb. 1987|
|18||Nagaland||Kohima||1 Dec. 1963|
|19||Odisha||Bhubaneswar||26 Jan. 1950|
|20||Punjab||Chandigarh||1 Nov. 1956|
|21||Rajasthan||Jaipur||1 Nov. 1956|
|22||Sikkim||Gangtok||16 May. 1975|
|23||Tamil Nadu||Chennai||26 Jan. 1950|
|24||Telangana||Hyderabad||2 Jun. 2014|
|25||Tripura||Agartala||21 Jan. 1972|
|26||Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow||26 Jan. 1950|
|9 Nov. 2000|
|28||West Bengal||Kolkata||1 Nov. 1956|
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Indian State: Union Territories and Capitals
What is a Union Territory?
It is an administrative division which is controlled by the Central Government. A union Territory is directly ruled by the central government which consists of Lieutenant Governor as an administrator. The lieutenant Governor is appointed by the parliament, and is the representative of the President. At present there are 8 Union Territories in India.
The two union territory which are Jammu&Kashmir and Ladakh are added in the list of Union territories of India under a reorganization act passed by the parliament on 5-6 August 2020. The below table shows the detailed lists of 8 union territories of the country.
|Union Territories Names||Capital||Founded on|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||1 Nov. 1956|
|Chandigarh||Chandigarh||1 Nov. 1966|
|Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu||Daman||26 Jan. 2020|
|Delhi||New Delhi||9 May. 1905|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Srinagar (Summer)
|31 Oct 2019|
|Lakshadweep||Kavaratti||1 Nov. 1956|
|Puducherry||Pondicherry||1 Nov. 1954|
|Ladakh||Leh||31 Oct 2019|
Delhi, Puducherry, and Jammu & Kashmir do not operate in the same manner as the other five Union Territories of India since they have partial statehood status and have their own elected legislative assemblies
India is mainly located in South Asia and is officially known as the Republic of India. It comprises a total area of 3,287,263 sq. km and has an estimated population of 135.26 crores (2019) which makes it the world’s second-most populous country.
India is a federal constitutional republic and is known as the world’s most populous democracy. It is governed by the parliamentary system. Earlier there were 28 states and 8 Union Territories but the Government Of India revoked article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir and declared it as a union territory along with Ladakh. After the implementation of the decision, currently, there are 28 states and 8 Union Territories as Daman & Diu is merged with Dadar and Nagar Haveli.
Each state and union territory has an administrative, legislative, and judicial capital of its own. (The Union territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh have a common high court as per the new guidelines)
Types of Capital
Given Below is a brief difference between the different kinds of capitals.
- An administrative capital refers to the one where all the offices of the executive government are situated.
- A legislative capital refers to the one where the state assembly convenes.
- A judicial capital refers to the one where the territorial high courts are located.
All the states along with two union territories, Pondicherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have an elected form of government and legislatures. They are headed by their elected Chief Minister, who is elected for a term of five years. The Central government directly rules all the other union territories and has a representative in each UT known as the governor. Under the States Reorganization Act of 1956, the states were reorganized based on the language which is used there.
Capital of India
New Delhi is the capital of India. The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911. British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker designed it. Finally, Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin inaugurated it on 13 February 1931.
Financial Capital of India
Mumbai is known as the financial, commercial, and entertainment capital of India because it accounts for 25% of industrial output, 5% of India’s GDP, and also 70% of the capital transactions in the Indian economy and has financial institutions of national importance such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange Market, and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies.
As per an article in Times Of India, Mumbai has ceded its position as the financial capital of India based on data released by oxford economics and the center is shifting to Gurugram and Delhi.
Difference Between State And Union Territories
The below table highlights the detailed information about difference between the State and Union Territories of India.
|A state is the division of a nation that has its own legislative assembly.||A Union Territory doesn’t have a legislative assembly ( Delhi, Puducherry, and Jammu & Kashmir)|
|Chief Minister is the real head.||Lieutenant is the real head.|
|The executive head is Governor.||The executive head is President.|
|Administered by Chief Minister.||Administered by Administrator, appointed by President.|
|States have Autonomous Power.||UTs do not have it.|
States and Capitals of India: Articles in the Constitution
Under Part 1 of the constitution, Articles 1 to 4 describe India and its territories.
- Article 1 describes India as the “Union of States” and not “Federation of states” The names of states and their territories are mentioned in the first schedule of the constitution.
- Article 2 allows the parliament to ‘admit into the Union of India or establish new states on such terms as it thinks or finds fit.’ Hence, it gives power to parliament to establish new states.
- Article 3 permit the parliament to-
a) form a new state by separation of existing territory
b) increase the area of the state as seem fit
c) diminish the area of any state as seem fit
d) alter the boundary of any state as seem fit
e) alter the name of any state as seem fit
List of the Indian States and their Languages:
In India, every state has its different language, and our country is also well known because of its culture, languages and religion. The table below shows the language of each states.
|1||Andhra Pradesh||Telugu and Urdu|
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||Miji, Apotanji,Merdukpen, Tagin,
Adi, Honpa, Bangini-Nishi
|6||Goa||Marathi and Konkani|
|9||Himachal Pradesh||Hindi and Pahari|
|10||Mizoram||Mizo and English|
|11||Jammu & Kashmir||Kashmiri, Dogiri, Urdu,Ladakki, Pahari, Panjabi and Dadri|
|18||Meghalaya||Khashi, JaintiaAnd Garo|
|19||Nagaland||Ao, Konyak, Angami,Sema and Lotha|
|22||Rajasthan||Rajasthani and Hindi|
|23||Sikkim||Bhutia, Hindi, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu|
|25||Tripura||Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak|
Delhi, Puducherry, J& K are different from other Union Territories
- In India, the majority of the states and three union territories, i.e. Puducherry, Delhi, and Jammu, and Kashmir possess elected legislature and government.
- Currently, there are total of eight union territories in India, out of which 3, i.e. Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, and Puducherry, have their elected members and the Chief Minister and these are granted with partial statehood, by an amendment to the Constitution.
- Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, and Puducherry are the only union territories that possess their own legislative assembly and executive council and operate like states. The remaining union territories are controlled and regulated by the Union of the country, that’s why named as a union territory.
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FAQ: States and Capitals of India
Q1. How many states are there in India in 2021?
Ans. Currently, there are 28 states in India.
Q2. How many union territories are there in India?
Ans. There is a total of 8 Union territories in India.
Q3. What is the capital of India?
Ans. New Delhi is the capital of India.
Q4. Which Union territories were merged in January 2020?
Ans. Daman and Diu were merged in January 2020.
Q5. Which state has been bifurcated to make union territory?
Ans. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is bifurcated into Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh Union Territories.
Q6. What is the Financial Capital Of India?
Ans. Mumbai is the Financial capital of India.
Q7. Who is considered the head of Union Territory?
Ans. Lieutenant Governor is considered as the head of Union Territory.