Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO Prelims Exam: 19th September 2018

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IBPS PO Prelims is in its way and lot of aspirants are heading towards new hopes with this upcoming opportunity. Thus, English Language can be an impetus for their success by saving time and scoring well. So, instead of boiling the ocean, try building up a strong vocabulary, an effective knowledge of grammar, and efficient comprehension skills so as to be on the ball to face this particular section. Here is a quiz on English Language being provided by Adda247 to let you practice the best of latest pattern English Questions for upcoming IBPS PO exam.




Directions (1-7): Read the following passage carefully and answer the respective questions given below each of them. Certain words/phrases/sentences have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

In his note to Parliament’s Estimates Committee on bank non-performing assets (NPAs), Mr.Rajan has flagged three major sources of potential trouble: Mudra credit, which is basically small loans granted to micro and small enterprises; lending to farmers through Kisan Credit Cards; and contingent liabilities under the Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSMEs, run by the Small Industries Development Bank of India. 

The disbursement under Mudra loans alone is Rs. 6.37 lakh crore, which is over 7% of the total outstanding bank credit. These loans have been sanctioned under the PradhanMantri Mudra Yojana, which aims to ‘fund the unfunded’, and is a signature scheme of the NDA government. Given that these are small loans up to Rs. 10 lakh each, with the borrowers mostly from the informal sector, banks have to monitor them very closely. It is debatable whether banks have the resources and manpower to do this when they are chasing the bigger borrowers for business and, increasingly these days, recoveries. The risk is that these small-ticket loans will drop under the radar and build into a large credit issue in course of time. The same logic holds true for crop loans made through Kisan Credit Cards. 

Mr.Rajan’s advice on loan waivers has been made by him and others in the past. But the political class has chosen to turn a deaf ear to this advice, vitiating the credit culture and creating a moral hazard where farmer-borrowers assume that their loans will invariably be waived off. The former RBI Governor has strongly defended the RBI against criticism, often unfair, over its policies on NPA recognition and resolution. He rightly termed as “ludicrous” the allegations that the economy slowed down because of the RBI. Recognition is the first step in a clean-up, and unless banks are cleaned of their non-performing loans, they cannot make fresh loans. 

The Central government should also take note of some forward-looking statements that Mr.Rajan has made on the governance of banks. Among his suggestions to avert a recurrence of the current mess are, professionalising bank boards with appointments done by an independent Banks Board Bureau; inducting talent from outside banks to make up for the deficit within; revising compensation structures to attract the best talent; and ensuring that banks are not left without a leader at the top. 

It is a comment on the state of our polity that despite the important issues that Mr.Rajan raised, political parties have chosen to pick only the points that are convenient to them — about the period when these bad loans were made and the purported inaction over a list of high-profile fraud cases highlighted by him. 

Q1. What has been the reaction of the political class over Mr.Rajan and others’ views on loan waivers?
It has been taken seriously and appropriate actions have been taken.
It has been considered carefully but no action has been taken on it yet.
It has been ignored completely.
The advices have been implemented partially.
Not mentioned in the passage.
Solution:
First two lines of the 3rdpara talk about Mr.Rajan’s and others’ views onloan waivers and here the phrase ‘turning a deaf ear’ means not giving importance to; or ignoring something completely. Hence, (c) is the correct choice here.

Q2.  According to the passage, how much money has been disbursed under the Mudra loans so far?
Rs. 6.37 lakh crore
Rs. 10 lakh
7% of the total outstanding bank credit
Both (a) & (c)
None of these
Solution:
First line of the 2ndpara talks about the amount disbursed in loans under the Mudra loans and here very clearly (a) is the correct answer. Option (c) is incorrect because Rs. 6.37 croreconstituteOVER 7% of the total outstanding bank credit and not exactly 7%. Hence, only (a) is the correct answer here.

Q3. According to the passage which of the following is/are the statement(s) on the politics of author’s country?
The blaming of RBI’s NPA recognition policy by the ruling party for the slowing down of the economy.
The loan waivers by several public sector banks owing to continuous political pressure despite warnings from economy experts.
The cherry-picking by the political class from the observations and comments made by Mr.Rajan on the NPA problem in the country.
The appointments to the Banks Board Bureau made by the politicians.
All three of (a), (b) & (c)
Solution:
The last paragraph talks about the statement/comment on author’s country’s polity (politics). When it says, ‘It is a comment on the state of our polity that despite the important issues that Mr.Rajan raised, political parties have chosen to pick only the points that are convenient to them’, it becomes evidently clear that he is talking about the cherry-picking from Mr.Rajan’s comments by the poltical parties. Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

Q4. Which of the following words can replace the word “ludicrous” given in the passage without changing the meaning and context of the sentence?
Reasonable
Lame
Ridiculous
Any one of these
Petulant
Solution:
The word ‘Ludicrous’ means, foolishly laughable. Hence, ‘Ridiculous’, which means the same, is the correct choice here. Lame – not strong, good or effective; not smart or impressive. Petulant – having or showing the attitude of the people who become angry and annoyed when they do not get what they want. For e.g. – ‘His petulant tone was for everyone to see when his mother didn’t let him go out to play before he finished his homework’.

Q5. What can be inferred from the statement,‘It is debatable whether banks have the resources and manpower to do this’?
There is an on-going debate among the economy experts on the issue of lack of manpower with the banks to handle large number of loans.
It is not clear, and is open to arguments, if the banks have enough resources and manpower to scrutinize the large number of loans advanced under the Mudra scheme.
At present, it is a question of debate whether the banks should install all their manpower and resources on recovery of small loans or loans advanced to bigger borrowers.
It is debatable whether the banks have enough resources to advance more small ticket loans for the purchase of radars through the Kisan Credit Cards.
The given statement is ambiguous and it is not clear what the author wants to convey here.
Solution:
The statement is taken form the 2ndpara and lines 4,5 and 6 make it very clear that a lot of loans have been advanced through Mudra scheme and it is not clear if the banks have enough resources to monitor these loans, especially when they are increasingly focussing on recoveries from large borrowers. Hence (b) is the correct answer.

Q6. What does the author mean by The risk is that these small-ticket loans will drop under the radarand build into a large credit issue in course of time?
The loans advanced through the Kisan credit cards for the purchase of Radar systems by farmers could become a credit problem with time.
The loans advanced by the banks to a small number of big corporates have become a huge credit issue for our banking industry.
The small amount loans advanced by the banks under Mudra Scheme and Kisan Credit Cards would go unnoticed and become a credit recovery issue in the future.
The loans advanced by the banks for the purchase of small radars may become an NPA issue in the future and hence banks should avoid advancing loans for the same.
The author wants the central government to put pressure on the banks toprovide further loans for radar systems even if these might develop into a credit issue in the near future.
Solution:
The given statement is taken from the third para and talks about the risk associated with the (small-ticket) small amount – under Rs.10-lakh each - loans advanced under the Mudra scheme. The author suggests that these small loans would go unchecked (the phrase ‘go/drop under the radar’ means to go un-monitored or un-checked) and in the course of time accumulate to become a big credit problem. Hence option (c) is the correct answer here.

Q7. According to the passage, what can be done to attract best talent into the banking industry?
Professionalising the banks
Inducting talent from outside
Revising the compensation structure
All of these
Not leaving a bank leader-less
Solution:
2nd last line of the 4thpara suggests revising compensation structure as the step to attract best talent. Hence, (c) is the correct answer.

Directions (8-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the respective questions given below each of them. Certain words/phrases/sentences have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

There was a time when Pete Sampras’s tally of 14 Grand Slam singles titles - the last of which came at the U.S. Open in 2002 — seemed like the acme of sporting achievement in men’s tennis. Little did anybody expect that in the next 16 years, across 64 Majors, in 2018, not one or two but three players would stand shoulder to shoulder with the American great. 

On Sunday, Novak Djokovic became that third man, defeating Argentine Juan Martin del Potro, for his third U.S. Open title at Flushing Meadows.The 31-year-old Serb has never been considered a once-in-a-generation talent, as have Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal, the ones above him in the trophy count. But nobody represents the modern-day game as well as Djokovic. He is the ultimate practitioner of the attrition-based baseline tennis, and at his best, with his supremely efficient patrolling of the court, is near invincible. Over two weeks in New York he hit this high many times over. In fact, the 95-minute second set in the final was a microcosm of Djokovic’s last two years. It was long and weary as fortunes swung back and forth. But adversity energised him, and he found a level which his opponent couldn’t match. Coming after his triumphant return at Wimbledon in July, the latest success is evidence enough that technically, tactically and physically Djokovic is back to his best. 

If it was about the restoration of the old order on the men’s side, it was the continuation of the new in the women’s section of the year’s last Grand Slams. There has been a first-time winner in four of the past six Grand Slam tournaments, and 20-year-old Naomi Osaka added to the eclectic mix by becoming the first Japanese to win a Major. In Serena Williams, the winner of 23 singles Slams, the most by any player in the Open Era, Osaka faced the ultimate challenge. It was also an inter-generational battle like none other. The 16-year age gap between Williams and Osaka was the second biggest in the Open Era for a women’s final, next only to Monica Seles (17) vs. Martina Navratilova (34) at the 1991 U.S. Open. 

To her immense credit, Osaka wasn’t awed by the stage. While growing up, she had revered Williams. After all, this is someone who chose Williams as her subject for a school essay in third grade. On Saturday she played like she knew the 36-year-old’s game like the back of her hand, absorbing everything the American threw at her, and redirecting them with much more panache. The magnitude of her achievement was nearly drowned out by the chaos in the aftermath of Williams’s tirade against the chair umpire. Yet, the manner in which Osaka, at an impressionable young age, closed out the match with a cold relentlessness showed she is here to stay. 

 Q8. According to the passage, how does Naomi Osaka consider Serena Williams?
Naomi sees Serena Williams as the ultimate challenge and wishes to win against her.
Williams is considered just another opponent by Naomi as she does not want to take extra pressure by treating her differently.
Williams is not liked by Naomi as she had defeated another Japanese player at the US open finals 10 years back and Naomi wants to avenge that by defeating Serena at the US open final.
Naomi admires and respects Serena Williams deeply.
Both (a) & (d)
Solution:
The last para of the passage talks about the given subject. It clearly mentions that while growing up, Naomi revered (to have great respect for someone/something) Serena Williams and even chose her as the subject of one of her school essays in third grade. Also, in the 5th line of 3rdpara the author suggests that Naomi faced her ultimate challenge in the US open final. Hence only(d) is the correct answer.

Q9. What does the author mean by –‘In fact, the 95-minute second set in the final was a microcosm of Djokovic’s last two years’?
The second set alone of this year’s US open final was as long as Novak Djokovic’s total stay at the previous two occasions at the US open tournaments.
The second set of this year’s US open final was the complete opposite of Novak Djokovic’s form in professional tennis in the last two years.
The second set of this year’s US open final was a highlight of Novak Djokovic’s return to his best playing rhythm.
The 95-minute long second set at this year’s US open final was the longest of all Novak Djokovic’s matches in the last two years.
With poor performances in last two years, Djokovic had promised to play better at this year’s US open and the 95-minute second against a tough opponent in Juan Martin delPotro proved his determination.
Solution:
Microcosm – something, such as a place or an event, that is seen as a smaller version of something much larger. The given line is taken from the second para of this passage. The last line of this para suggests that after his triumphant return at the Wimbledon the latest success (winning the US open) is evidence enough that Djokovic is back at his best. Hence in this light it is very much evident that the 95-minute marathon second set at the US open finals was a highlight of his form and return to his best playing rhythm in the last two years.

Q10. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct in the context of the above passage?
Both (b) & (c)
Novak Djokovic thanks Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal for inspiring him with their never give up attitude and considers them as once-in-a-generation talents.
Serena Williams argued with and blamed the chair umpire of bias in favour of Naomi Osaka.
Naomi Osaka played with great determination and returned all the shots from Serena Williams with great power and style.
None of the above.
Solution:
The lastpara clearly mentions that Naomi was not awed by the stage and played relentlessly while absorbing and returning whatever Serena threw at her with much more panache (lots of energy and style). Hence option (d) is the correct answer to this question.

Q11. Which of the following is a SYNONYM of the word ‘tirade’ used in the given passage?
Protest
Boycott
Rant
Gesture
None of these
Solution:
TIRADE means a long, angry speech of criticism or accusation. Hence, RANT is the correct answer as it is synonymous to it.

Q12. Which of the following is an ANTONYM of the word ‘eclectic’ used in the passage above?
Homogeneous
Non-electrifying
Monotonous
Uninteresting
Old
Solution:
Eclectic – including things taken from many different sources. Synonym – Heterogeneous Antonym – Homogenous Monotonous –used to describe something that is boring because it is always the same.

Q13. According to the passage in what manner did Naomi Osaka end the women’s final of the US open?
In tears of happiness because she had become the US Open champion.
In tears because of the booing she received from the crowd after she defeated the local favourite Serena Williams.
Calmly and unrelentingly.
In frustration after the chair umpire reprimanded her.
Not mentioned in the passage.
Solution:
2nd last line of the last para categorically mentions that despite thechaos in the aftermath of Serena Williams’s tirade against the chair umpire she didn’t lose her calm and at an impressionably young age and closed the match in cold and relentlessness manner. Hence (c) is the correct answer.

Q14. According to passage what can be inferred about the personality of Naomi Osaka?
She is an ambitious athlete with great experience as she has been playing since a very young age.
She is a very gritty and composed player and does not let the occasion get over her.
She is a very aggressive and competitive player and says she’s here to stay.
She idolised the William sisters while growing up and is very aggressive on the court like them.
Both (c) & (d)
Solution:
The last para of the passage mentions that Naomi wasn’t awed (amazed or astonished) by the stage in the US open final which suggests that she does not let the occasion get over her. Also, the last line of the last para says that she played in relentless manner that means she is a gritty (showing great courage and determination) player. Hence option (b) is the correct answer here.

Q15. What does the author mean by “If it was about the restoration of the old order on the men’s side, it was the continuation of the new in the women’s section of the year’s last Grand Slams”?
The men’s final of the US open was played on a vintage court while that of the women’s was played on a brand new court built just 2 months prior to the tournament.
The ball boys were all retired people of age more than 60 years in the men’s final while in the women’s final all ball boys were aged under-15 years.
The winner of the men’s US open final was an old experienced player in Novak Djokovic while the women’s final was won by a newcomer.
In the men’s final veteran player Pete Sampras was given a wild card entry while in the women’s final, a young player from Japan, Naomi Osaka was given the wild card entry.
None of these
Solution:
If the passage is read carefully, it is very clear that the author tries to convey a message that while the win of Novak Djokovic has re-established the old order in men’s category, the triumph of the first-timer 20-year old Naomi Osaka has meant the continuation of the recent trend at the US open, where a newcomer has become the champion in 4 of the last 6 editions. Hence, (c) is right answer here.