English Language Quiz For Indian Bank PO Mains: 16th October

Dear Aspirants,

IBPS PO Prelims and Indian Bank PO Prelims exam haven been conducted recently. Now the next step is to clear the Mains examination. Thus, English Language can be an impetus for your success by saving time and scoring well. So, instead of boiling the ocean, try building up a strong vocabulary, an effective knowledge of grammar, and efficient comprehension skills so as to be on the ball to face this particular section. Here is a quiz on English Language being provided by Adda247 to let you practice the best of latest pattern English Questions for upcoming IBPS PO Mains and Indian Bank PO Mains exam.



Directions(1-5): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 


Slightly overshadowed by the news of rising fuel prices was a recent report about the Delhi Metro being the second most unaffordable in the world among metro systems that charge less than half a US dollar for a trip, with the average commuter paying 14% of their income to travel by it. A study by the Centre for Science and Environment recommended that both the state and Central governments adopt strategies to increase public transit ridership, and enable fiscal solutions to keep it affordable. Meanwhile, opposition parties called a bandh recently to demand that the government take steps to reduce fuel prices. But is this really the best solution? In major urban centers, at least, a more sustainable solution would involve keeping petrol prices high and investing the tax revenue generated into funding public transit and keeping its fares affordable. This is now possible by law, thanks to a change brought about in the 2018 Union budget.


The price of petrol comprises substantially of taxes—only about 50% of the market price is made up by the cost of production and refining. Besides excise duty levied by both central and state governments, the former has, for the last two decades, levied a road cess on every litre of petrol (and diesel) as additional excise duty, towards the Central Road Fund. Established by an Act of Parliament in 2000, the proceeds of this fund were, until 2018, used for road construction, including programmes such as the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) and the PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY) for construction of rural roads. The cess, originally Rs.1 per litre, has increased to Rs.8 per litre in the 2018 Union budget, and been renamed as the infrastructure cess. The 2018 Finance Act also renamed the fund as the Central Road and Infrastructure Fund, expanding its ambit to cover other kinds of infrastructure beyond roads. Among the new categories for which the fund is to be used is urban public transport. In 2018–19, the fund is expected to receive over Rs.1.13 trillion from the infrastructure cess. Delhi offers an interesting example of how this could be used to benefit citizens and contribute to offsetting carbon emissions from petrol (and diesel) cars.

In 2016, the Delhi Metro’s fourth fare fixation committee (FFC) submitted its report. It analyzed the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation’s (DMRC’s) finances on the basis of the existing fare structure, and concluded that the company would face increasing losses. Therefore, it proposed a fare hike of 100%. This was implemented in two phases—in May and October 2017—as the FFC itself noted that 30% of Metro passengers earned less than Rs.20,000 a month and a single steep hike would adversely affect them. Nevertheless, it resulted in an immediate drop in ridership by 15%, while the DMRC is set to project an operational profit from 2018-19. One might argue that revenues increased, but surely the purpose of public transit is not to generate revenue but transport the largest number of people at the least cost—to them, society and the environment. What has instead resulted is an “operationally profitable” public transit system that serves fewer people at higher cost. With rising fuel prices, the cost of private transport (after the fare hikes, operating a two-wheeler on many routes became cheaper than using the Metro) has also increased.

The government has two ways of resolving this unsustainable situation: (1) reduce taxes on fuel, making private transport cheaper; (2) reduce fares, making public transit cheaper. The second is obviously the more environment-friendly and sustainable solution for the city and its residents, beset as it is with pollution, traffic congestion and high vehicle ownership. A reduction of fares even to May 2017 levels will result in a drop of 25–33% for most journeys. At these fares, the overall losses to DMRC (after accounting for operational expenses, depreciation, interest and loan repayments) will be in the range of under Rs.600 crore annually, which is less than the cess revenue generated in Delhi through petrol sales alone). Delhi can thus afford to reduce its Metro fares using just the revenue from petrol sales. Further, with the increased rate of cess from 2018–19, this revenue is likely to rise. The surplus, along with the revenue from diesel, can be used to make investments in other public transport providers such as the Delhi Transport Corporation and the Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System, as well as improvements in pedestrian infrastructure—especially in the vicinity of Metro stations and bus stops to ensure seamless and improved connectivity for all citizens. The Central government should, therefore, begin treating the infrastructure cess as a carbon tax in urban areas and ensure that the revenue accruing to the Central Road and Infrastructure Fund from urban areas is invested in urban public transport. Whether car and two-wheeler owners will be incentivized to reduce using their vehicles because of this is difficult to say. Even with no change in private vehicle usage, the result will still be an affordable and improved public transit system for everyone.



Q1. According to the passage, what is described as the best solution to increase public transit ridership instead of reducing the fuel prices?

Using chemically stored electricity like batteries and fuel cells, non-fossil methane and other biomass sources.
To expand other kinds of infrastructure beyond roads from the revenue generated by increasing the hike in private transport.
Investing tax revenue generated into funding public transit.
Bringing a great hike in the prices of private transport.
None of these.
Solution:
In the first paragraph, the author has described how the opposition parties think that the best solution is to reduce the fuel prices. But the most sustainable solution is keeping petrol prices high and investing the tax revenue generated into funding public transit and keeping its fares affordable. Furthermore this solution is possible by a change brought in about in the 2018 Union budget.

Q2. What all other aspects were covered by the Central Road and Infrastructure Fund under the Finance Act 2018?
The fund is to be utilized in the usage of urban public transport.
Build Infrastructure such as roads.
The fund is used in improving connectivity of ports and airports.
Acquisition of land thereby preventing deforestation.
To cater the increasing needs of growing economy.
Solution:
Option (a) is the most suitable option here. Refer to second paragraph where it is given that the 2018 Finance Act renamed the fund as the Central Road and Infrastructure Fund expanding its scope and boundaries to cover other kinds of infrastructure beyond roads. And the other category for which the fund is to be used is the urban public transport.

Q3. Why making public transit cheaper is a preferred method over reducing taxes on fuel?
As high revenue from petrol or diesel can be used to improve DTC and other private cab services.
It is an environment friendly solution with trouble free high vehicle ownership issues.
As this would help in reducing traffic congestion.
Both (a) and (c)
Both (b) and (c)
Solution:
Option (e) is the most appropriate choice here. The answer can be deduced from the fourth paragraph in which the first line of the paragraph itself says that the government has two ways of resolving this unsustainable situation. Reducing fares, making public transit cheaper is obviously the more environment-friendly and sustainable solution for the city and its residents, beset as it is with pollution, traffic congestion and high vehicle ownership. This is stated in the passage .Hence the answer.

Q4. What all are the losses already incurred by Delhi Metro Railway Corp. mentioned after the reduction of fares?
Replacement of various assets such as Rolling Stock which have a life of 30 years.
Operational expenses.
Depreciation, interest and loan repayments.
Both (b) and (c).
Both (a) and (b).
Solution:
Option (d) is the correct choice here. Though option (a) also seems correct, however it is not mentioned in the passage. For options (b) and (c), refer to fourth paragraph where it is stated that a reduction in fares of Delhi Metro to the May 2017 level would result in a drop of 25–33% for most journeys.At these fares, the overall losses to DMRC (after accounting for operational expenses, depreciation, interest and loan repayments) will be in the range of under Rs.600 crore annually.

Q5. Which of the statements among the given options is definitely false according to the given passage?
Both the State and Centre must adopt strategies to increase public transit ridership.
In 2016, FCC analyzed DMRC’s finances and concluded that the company would face increasing losses.
With rising fuel prices, the cost of private transport at least in some cities has also decreased.
Central Road and Infrastructure Fund expand its ambit to cover other kinds of infrastructure beyond roads.
In 2018–19, the Central and Infrastructure Road fund is expected to receive over Rs.1.13 trillion from the infrastructure cess.
Solution:
Among all of the given options, option (c) is the correct choice which is definitely false according to the given passage. For the conformity of the answer , refer to paragraph 3 where the statement is given as with rising fuel prices, the cost of private transport (after the fare hikes, operating a two-wheeler on many routes became cheaper than using the Metro) has also increased.Rest all of the options are completely true in context as well as relevance of the passage.

Directions(6-10): In each of the question given below a/an idiom/phrase is given in bold in a sentence, which is then followed by five options which try to decipher its meaning as used in the sentence. Choose the option which gives the meaning of the given idiom/phrase. 



Q6. He's been chasing his tail all week collecting data but the report is still not ready.

Spending a lot of time and energy doing a lot of things and achieving more than expected.
Working hard again and again after failing.
Spending the time on unimportant things than focussing on the required things.
Spending a lot of time and energy doing a lot of things but actually achieving too little.
None of the Above
Solution:
Chase your tail- Spending a lot of time and energy doing a lot of things but actually achieving too little.

Q7. The boss examined my report with a fine tooth comb before submitting it to the senior management.
Examining something carefully to not miss out any details.
Examine something with an inference of the past data.
To look into something so as to intentionally find faults in it
To watch something with the use of a magnifying glass.
None of the Above
Solution:
Fine tooth comb- Examining something carefully to not miss out any details.

Q8. Being into the construction business for last 10 years, I know all tricks of the trade.
Cunning way to dupe people.
To know all the secrets of an organisation.
Clever or expert way of doing something.
Skill to manage all the loopholes of a thing.
None of the Above
Solution:
Tricks of the trade-Clever or expert way of doing something.

Q9. The management of various PSUs wanted to cut down on the man power. They offered a golden hand shake to many of their aged employees.
Give a trophy with a golden glove on it to felicitate people.
Bribe given to people to get one’s work done.
Big sum of money given to a person when they leave a company or retire.
To offer gold in return of some service.
None of the Above
Solution:
Golden hand shake-Big sum of money given to a person when they leave a company or retire.

Q10. My kids wish to see the animals. They are raring to go to zoo.
Not being interested about the idea of something.
To start fighting on not finishing a task.
Being very eager and enthusiastic about the idea of doing something.
Being fickle minded about the idea of doing something
None of the Above
Solution:
Raring to go - Being very eager and enthusiastic about the idea of doing something.

Direction (11-15): Select the phrase/connector (STARTERS) from the given three options which can be used to form a single sentence from the two sentences given below, implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences. 



Q11. [I] She lived for hundreds of millennia and her status as a deity. 

[II] She didn't own anything fancy. 
(i) Considering she lived….
(ii) Even though she lived…
(iii) Despite she lived for….
Only (i)
Only (ii)
Only (iii)
None of these
All of these
Solution:
All the three starters can be used to frame a meaningful sentence without altering the intended meaning of the given sentences.
Hence option (e) is the correct choice.
(i) Considering she lived for hundreds of millennia and her status as a deity, she didn't own anything fancy.
(ii)Even though she lived for hundreds of millennia and her status as a deity, she didn't own anything fancy.
(iii) Despite she lived for hundreds of millennia and her status as a deity, she didn't own anything fancy.

Q12. [I] India should take the next giant leap of digital progress. 
[II] India might risk being left behind in the global digital race. 
(i) If India doesn’t take the next… 
(ii) Unless India takes…
(iii) Whether India takes the next….
Only (i)
Only (ii)
Both (i) and (ii)
None of these
All of these
Solution:
Both the starters (i) and (ii) can be used to frame a meaningful sentence without altering the exact meaning of the given sentences. However, it is not possible to construct a contextual sentence using the third starter as it would alter the intended meaning.
Hence option (c) is the correct choice.
(i) If India doesn’t take the next giant leap of digital progress, it risks being left behind in the global digital race.
(ii) Unless India takes the next giant leap of digital progress, it risks being left behind in the global digital race.

Q13. [I] We will need to compile a lot more responses to our questionnaire. 
[II] Before we can draw any conclusions from the information. 
(i) We will need to…
(ii) A lot more responses with…
(iii) Before we can…
Both (i) and (iii)
Only (ii)
Only (iii)
None of these
All of these
Solution:
Both the starters (i) and (iii) can be used to frame a meaningful sentence without altering the exact meaning of the given sentences. However, it is not possible to construct a contextual sentence using the second starter as it would alter the intended meaning.
Hence option (a) is the correct choice.
(i) We will need to compile a lot more responses to our questionnaire before we can draw any conclusions from the information.
(iii) Before we can draw any conclusions from the information, we need to compile a lot more responses to our questionnaire.

Q14. [I]The first FA Cup Final to go to extra time and a replay was the 1875 final. 
[II] The match was played between the Royal Engineers and the Old Etonians. 
(i) The match was played between…
(ii) The first FA Cup… 
(iii) In 1875 final…
Both (i) and (iii)
Only (ii)
Only (iii)
None of these
All of these
Solution:
Among the given starters, only starter (ii) successfully frames a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful sentence. However, it is not possible to construct a contextual sentence using the first and the third starter as it would alter the intended meaning.
Hence option (b) is the correct choice.
(ii) The first FA Cup Final to go to extra time and a replay was the 1875 final, between the Royal Engineers and the Old Etonians.

Q15. [I] The company is planning to build a new chemical plant in Russia. 
[II] My father's company is on the verge of bankruptcy. 
(i) Although my father’s company…
(ii) Even though the company… 
(iii) Inspite of the company is…
Both (i) and (iii)
Only (ii)
Only (iii)
None of these
Both (i) and (ii)
Solution:
Both (i) and (ii) are appropriate to frame a grammatically correct and contextually meaningful sentence. Hence, option (e) is the most suitable answer choice.

               


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