English Language Quiz for IBPS 2020 Mains Exams- 10th December

Directions (1-6): In the following question, a part of the sentence is given in bold; it is then followed by three sentences which try to explain the meaning of the phrase given in bold. Choose the best set of alternatives from the five options given below each question which explains the meaning of the phrase correctly without altering the meaning of the sentence given to the question.

Q1. Indian farmers once enjoyed a certain status in society, but today they are trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty because, as macro and micro data reveal, their earnings barely cover the costs of cultivation.
(I)Indian farmers used to enjoy a certain status in society, but today the situation has aggravated to such an extent that their earnings barely cover the costs of cultivation.
(II)A particular status once enjoyed by Indian farmers has been replaced by a series of impoverishment that continues to exist generation after generation as, according to macro and micro data, their earnings hardly cover the costs of cultivation.
(III)The status of individuality once enjoyed by Indian farmers has long been lost, and today they are entangled in the web of indigence without any escape route as, according to macro and micro data, their earnings barely cover the costs of cultivation.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q2. The dichotomy is the striking feature. An estimated 25 per cent of our population is economically advanced with access to the latest technology, while the rest wallows in inhuman conditions.
(I)An estimated 25 per cent of our population has access to the latest technology forming economically advanced populace while the rest still lives a savage life; it makes the difference more evident.
(II)What is more striking is that one-fourth of our population is economically and technologically advanced while the rest is deprived of any such facilities.
(III)It is a distinct feature that around 25 per cent of our population is economically advanced with proficiency in technology and communication while the rest is still reeling under poverty.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q3. With the opulent pageantry and 8-km roadshow in Gujarat over, it is time to get down to brass tacks and address some of the issues in order to facilitate closer ties between India and Japan, even as the two leaders and militaries forge closer bonds.
(I)With the grand ceremony of the 8-km roadshow in Gujarat is over, it is the time to look out for future prospects to address some of the issues in order to facilitate a better relationship between India and Japan, even as the two leaders and militaries share stronger ties.
(II)As the luxuriant ceremony and display of 8-km roadshow in Gujarat is over, the time has come to discuss the most relevant facts and address some of the issues to assist closer ties between India and Japan, even though the two leaders and militaries form closer bonds.
(III)After the splendid display of 8-km roadshow in Gujarat, the two leaders are in the process of diplomatic meeting to facilitate closer ties between India and Japan despite sharing closer bonds.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q4. If such a new entity expects to be spoon-fed by Central government’s doles, there are bound to be similar demands from different parts of the country.
(I)There are bound to be similar demands from different parts of the country only if a new system depends heavily on Central government roles.
(II)If such a new entity expects to be treated with excessive solicitude by Central government’s doles, it would trigger the similar demands from different parts of the country.
(III)It is certain that similar demands would come up from different parts of the country if such a new entity expects such benefits provided to them by the government so completely as to preclude independent thought
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q5. Given that monetary authorities in the U.S. are focused on reflating the economy by supporting “further strengthening” in the labour market through an accommodative stance, the central bank has to remain vigilant in warding off any let-up in expansionary momentum.
(I)Considering the fact that monetary authorities in the U.S. are focused on expanding the economy by supporting “further strengthening” in the labour market through an accommodative stance, the central bank has to remain alert in preventing any contraction in expansionary momentum.
(II)As the monetary authorities in the U.S. are focused on reflating the economy by supporting “further strengthening” in the labour market through an accommodative stance, the central bank should be attentive enough to withdraw any possible arguments in expansionary momentum.
(III)Provided that monetary authorities in the U.S. are focused on reflating the economy by advocating “further strengthening” in the labour market through an accommodative stance, the central bank should be watchful in letting go any disruptions in expansionary momentum.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q6. The decision by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to crack down on so-called ‘shell companies’ would begin the clean-up of the Augean stables of firms set up in many cases with less than bona fide intent and having virtually no business operations.
(I)The decision by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to eliminate so-called ‘shell companies’ would clean up all the existing firms which are set up in many cases with less than bona fide intent and having virtually no business operations.
(II)The decision by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to suppress so-called ‘shell companies’ would begin to eradicate the old and stabilized firms which are set up in many cases with less than bona fide intent and having almost no business operations.
(III)The decision by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to thwart so-called ‘shell companies’ would begin the clean-up of  all the corrupted and depraved firms set up in many cases with less than bona fide intent and having virtually no business operations.
(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (II) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Directions (7-9): Select the phrase/connector (STARTERS) from the given three options which can be used to form a single sentence from the two sentences given below, implying the same meaning as expressed in the statement sentences.

Q7. (1)Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa was fully entitled to comment on the technical aspects of the combat aircraft.
(2)Since price negotiations are not directly handled by the IAF, there was little requirement for him to insist that it was a better price than what was secured by the previous government when processing plans to acquire 126 jets.
(I)While Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa…
(II)As price negotiations are not…
(III)In terms of entitlement by the IAF…

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (III) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q8. (1)The doctors routinely emphasize to complete the full course of the drug.
(2)New research suggests that an extended treatment course is appropriate only for certain cases.
(I)Completing the full course of…
(II)Though the doctors routinely…
(III)Despite the fact that the doctors…

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Q9. (1)Boeing focused all efforts and resources on developing a new lightweight plane, with more fuel-efficient carbon fibre composites.
(2)Boeing banked on its belief that airlines wanted efficient and not giant flying machines.
(I)Banking on its belief that…
(II)Despite that Boeing focuses on…
(III)For all that efficient and not giant…

(a)Only (I) is correct
(b)Only (II) is correct
(c)Both (I) and (II) are correct
(d)Both (I) and (III) are correct
(e)All are correct

Directions (10-11): Rearrange the following sentences to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions that follow.

Q10. If the sentence (E), “However, modern cold storages, as being set up by Allround India, a subsidiary of Allround Holland, and other such companies, can bring down wastage within the 10-15 per cent range.” is the last sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following sentences does not fit into the paragraph formed after rearranging other sentences?
(A)One of the prime reasons behind high volatility in onion prices stems from a lack of storage facilities that have not kept pace with rising production.
(B)This needs to go up manifold if we are serious about encouraging food processing and stabilising prices even of fresh onions.
(C)No wonder, MP farmers suffered most in a bumper onion crop year.
(D)While Maharashtra used the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana and National Horticulture Mission and created 42,282 low-cost onion storage structures with a capacity of 9.65 lakh tonnes, there is hardly any storage facility in MP.
(E)However, modern cold storages, as being set up by Allround India, a subsidiary of Allround Holland, and other such companies, can bring down wastage within the 10-15 per cent range.
(F)Also, the traditional storage practices incur losses as high as 40 per cent.

(a) F
(b) A
(c) D
(d) B
(e) C

Q11. If the sentence (A), “They cannot, we hope, be arbitrarily replaced by another set, in which, say, murder is okay but marriage is not.” is the second sentence of the paragraph, then which of the following sentences does not fit into the paragraph formed after rearranging other sentences?
(A)They cannot, we hope, be arbitrarily replaced by another set, in which, say, murder is okay but marriage is not.
(B)How we drive is how we are driven.
(C)Traffic restrictions lie on the surface of human interaction, where men and machines, and men in and as machines, are regulated and must regulate themselves.
(D)Moral and juridical rules, however, are constitutive of the way in which we live and interact with each other.
(E)But while morality underpins these rules, it also frames them: How we behave on the road is an image of ourselves.
(F)This has the effect, not legally but psychologically speaking, of legitimising jumping lights when they do work.

(a)D
(b)C
(c)F
(d)E
(e)B

Directions (12-15): In question given below there are two statements, each statement consists of two blanks. You have to choose the option which provides the correct set of words that fits both the blanks in both the statements appropriately and in the same order making them meaningful and grammatically correct.

Q12. (1)The ______________ of amendments around electoral bonds makes the scheme’s intent ______________ clear.
(2) The complex, called City Modern, will incorporate four surviving Victorian mansions within a street-friendly ________________________ of ____________________ sized contemporary houses and apartments.

(a) cluster, amply
(b) array, arguably
(c) network ,adequately
(d) congregate , covetously
(e) aggregate, aptly

Q13.(1) To many commentators, the Klan costume is now the perfect visual _______________ with which to decry Trump’s cack-handed false ____________________
(2)Another _____________________ of hand of the misinformation campaign is to draw a false ________________ between beef lynchings and the killing of minorities/Dalits.

(a) ineptitude, analogy
(b)adroitness, relation
(c) sleight, equivalence
(d) clumsiness, parelleism
(e) ineptness, uniformity

Q14. (1) It is difficult to ___________ that Aung San Suu Kyi who has long symbolized hope for the repressed is ____________ allowing its people, military, and some religious leaders to persecute the Rohingya.
(2) It is hard to _________ governments __________ allowing market-based currencies like bitcoin to out-compete their own fiat currencies.

(a) presume, deliberately
(b) fathom, voluntarily
(c) comprehend, instinctively
(d)construe, intentionally
(e) apprehend, inadvertently

Q15. (1) In fact, laws ____________ to drug use, trafficking and sales have gone slack which in turn has ________________ the safety of schools and residents.
(2) In such cases, the company has to ensure that a certain amount of dividends are regularly paid so that the legacy of the founder, ___________ to philanthropy, is not __________ and simultaneously ensure that capital is used sensibly by the business.

(a) Pertaining, jeopardized
(b) concerned, capitalized on
(c) correlated, imperiled
(d)conferred, endangered
(e) appertain, prejudiced

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Solutions

S1. Ans. (d)
Sol. The bold part of the sentence, “trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty” implies that today Indian farmers are entrapped in such a situation of poverty which seems to have no ending and continues to exist generation after generation. In economics, the vicious cycle of poverty is the “set of factors or events by which poverty, once started, is likely to continue unless there is outside intervention.” The cycle of poverty has been defined as a phenomenon where poor families become trapped in poverty for at least three generations. These families have either limited or no resources. Thus among the given options, only statements (II) and (III) can connect to the meaning of the phrase without altering the meaning of the actual sentence. Statement (I) is incorrect because it is partly conveying the meaning and at the same time it changes the meaning of the actual sentence. Hence (d) is the correct option.

S2. Ans. (a)
Sol. The word “dichotomy” means a division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as being opposed or entirely different. It has been used to describe the fact that the accessibility of technology is limited to small part of our population while others are still economically deprived. Among the three given statements, only statement (I) describes the exact meaning of the phrase while the other two statements give the vague idea of the actual meaning. Hence option (a) is correct.

S3. Ans. (b)
Sol. The phrase “get down to brass tacks” means to start talking about the most important or basic facts of a situation. All the given statements seem to provide the same explanation, but the statements (I) and (III) change the meaning of the sentence as they do not specify the correct meaning of the phrase whereas statement (II) describes the exact sense of the phrase without altering the meaning of the sentence. Hence option (b) is the correct choice.

S4. Ans. (d)
Sol. The phrase “spoon-fed” means provide (someone) with so much help or information that they do not need to think for themselves. Among the given three sentences, sentence (I) is incomplete and gives a vague idea of the meaning. Thus it doesn’t give the exact meaning of the phrase. Sentences (II) and (III) are almost similar with a little difference in their sentence structure. Both these sentences give the exact meaning of the phrase without altering the meaning of the original sentence. Hence (d) is the correct choice.

S5. Ans. (a)
Sol. The phrase “warding off” is a phrasal verb which means to turn aside or repel; avert.  The phrase, given in bold, “warding off any let-up” means preventing any cessation in expansionary momentum. The exact meaning of the phrase can only be verified from the first sentence as it has correctly explained the complete original sentence without any altercation. The other two sentences (II) and (III) give the wrong explanation of the phrase and thus they can be eliminated based on that. Hence (a) is the correct option.

S6. Ans. (b)
Sol. The phrase “Augean stables” means a condition or place marked by a great accumulation of filth or corruption. In this case, the phrase is used in reference to all those firms which are illegally carrying out corruption. Among the given three statements, only (III) provides the correct and exact meaning of the phrase without altering the meaning of the original sentence. Though sentence (I) also provides a good explanation, it is too vague to justify the exact meaning of the phrase. Similarly, sentence (II) gives the incorrect explanation of the phrase. Thus both these statements are not correct in the context of their phrasal meanings. Hence (b) is the correct option.

S7. Ans. (c)
Sol. Both the starters (I) and (II) can be used to connect the given set of two sentences to form a meaningful statement. However, the third starter is incorrect as it would alter the meaning of the actual sentence.
(I)While Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa was fully entitled to comment on the technical aspects of the combat aircraft, since price negotiations are not directly handled by the IAF, there was little requirement for him to insist that it was a better price than what was secured by the previous government when processing plans to acquire 126 jets.
(II)As price negotiations are not directly handled by the IAF, there was little requirement for Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa, who was fully entitled to comment on the technical aspects of the combat aircraft, to insist that it was a better price than what was secured by the previous government when processing plans to acquire 126 jets.

S8. Ans. (e)
Sol. All the three starters are correct enough to form three logical sentences without altering the meaning of the actual sentence.
(I)Completing the full course of the drug is routinely emphasized by the doctors, but new research suggests that an extended treatment course is appropriate only for certain cases.
(II)Though the doctors routinely emphasize to complete the full course of the drug, new research suggests that an extended treatment course is appropriate only for certain cases.
(III)Despite the fact that the doctors routinely emphasize to complete the full course of the drug, new research suggests that an extended treatment course is appropriate only for certain cases.

S9. Ans. (a)
Sol. Only the first starter can be used to frame a logical and comprehensive sentence connecting both the sentences given as the question. The other two starters are incorrect owing to their varying meanings.
(I)Banking on its belief that airlines wanted efficient and not giant flying machines, Boeing focused all efforts and resources on developing a new lightweight plane, with more fuel-efficient carbon fibre composites.

S10. Ans. (d)
Sol. If the sentence (E) is the last sentence of the paragraph, the sentences in the sequence of AFDCE form a coherent paragraph which is about the reasons behind high volatility in onion prices. However, the sentence (B) finds no alternative to be matched with as it talks about manifold increment in something which has no relevance from any other sentences among the given options. Hence (d) is the correct option as the sentence (B) does not belong to the paragraph so formed.

S11. Ans. (c)
Sol. If the sentence (A) is the second sentence of the paragraph, the sentences in the sequence of DACEB form a coherent paragraph which is about moral and juridical rules related to traffic restrictions. However, the sentence (F) finds no alternative to be connected with as it talks about the effect of some problem which finds no relevance from any other sentences given as options. Hence (c) is the correct choice of elimination as the sentence (F) is not the part of the paragraph so formed.

S12. Ans.(a)
Sol.  ‘cluster, amply’ fits the two sentences most appropriately.
Cluster means a group of similar things or people positioned or occurring closely together.
Amply means enough or more than enough; plentifully.
Covetously means having or showing a great desire to possess something belonging to someone else.
Congregate means gather into a crowd or mass.

S13. Ans.(c)
Sol. ‘Sleight, equivalence’ is the correct choice for the given question.
Sleight means the use of dexterity or cunning, especially so as to deceive.
Ineptitude means lack of skill or ability.
Parellelism means the state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way.
Ineptness means without skill or aptitude for a particular task or assignment; maladroit

S14. Ans.(b)
Sol.  ‘fathom, voluntarily’ is the correct choice.
Fathom means to understand (a difficult problem or an enigmatic person) after much thought.
Construe  means interpret (a word or action) in a particular way.
Inadvertently means without intention; accidentally.
Comprehend means grasp mentally; understand.
Apprehend means to understand or perceive.

S15. Ans.(a)
Sol. ‘Pertaining, jeopardized’ is the correct choice.
Pertaining means to be appropriate, related, or applicable to.
Jeopardized means to put (someone or something) into a situation in which there is a danger of loss, harm, or failure.
Imperil means to put at risk of being harmed, injured, or destroyed.
Appertain means to relate to; concern.
Conferred means to have discussions; exchange opinions.

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